Vertebrate photoreceptors are among the most metabolically active cells, exhibiting a high rate of ATP consumption. This is coupled with a high anabolic demand, necessitated by the diurnal turnover of a specialized membrane-rich organelle, the outer segment, which is the primary site of phototransduction. How photoreceptors balance their catabolic and anabolic demands is poorly understood. Here, we show that rod photoreceptors in mice rely on glycolysis for their outer segment biogenesis. Genetic perturbations targeting allostery or key regulatory nodes in the glycolytic pathway impacted the size of the outer segments. Fibroblast growth factor signaling was found to regulate glycolysis, with antagonism of this pathway resulting in anabolic deficits. These data demonstrate the cell autonomous role of the glycolytic pathway in outer segment maintenance and provide evidence that aerobic glycolysis is part of a metabolic program that supports the biosynthetic needs of a normal neuronal cell type.
- Yashodhan Chinchore
- Tedi Begaj
- David Wu
- Eugene Drokhlyansky
- Constance L Cepko
- Constance L Cepko
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: Animal care and use adhered to the Harvard Medical School's IACUC guidelines. Animals were handled in accordance with the protocol# 0428 and 04537.
- Jeremy Nathans, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, United States
© 2017, Chinchore et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)
Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)
Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)
How cells adjust nutrient transport across their membranes is incompletely understood. Previously, we have shown that S. cerevisiae broadly re-configures the nutrient transporters at the plasma membrane in response to amino acid availability, through endocytosis of sugar- and amino acid transporters (AATs) (Müller et al., 2015). A genome-wide screen now revealed that the selective endocytosis of four AATs during starvation required the α-arrestin family protein Art2/Ecm21, an adaptor for the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5, and its induction through the general amino acid control pathway. Art2 uses a basic patch to recognize C-terminal acidic sorting motifs in AATs and thereby instructs Rsp5 to ubiquitinate proximal lysine residues. When amino acids are in excess, Rsp5 instead uses TORC1-activated Art1 to detect N-terminal acidic sorting motifs within the same AATs, which initiates exclusive substrate-induced endocytosis. Thus, amino acid excess or starvation activate complementary α-arrestin-Rsp5-complexes to control selective endocytosis and adapt nutrient acquisition.
Translation of aberrant mRNAs induces ribosomal collisions, thereby triggering pathways for mRNA and nascent peptide degradation and ribosomal rescue. Here we use sucrose gradient fractionation combined with quantitative proteomics to systematically identify proteins associated with collided ribosomes. This approach identified Endothelial differentiation-related factor 1 (EDF1) as a novel protein recruited to collided ribosomes during translational distress. Cryo-electron microscopic analyses of EDF1 and its yeast homolog Mbf1 revealed a conserved 40S ribosomal subunit binding site at the mRNA entry channel near the collision interface. EDF1 recruits the translational repressors GIGYF2 and EIF4E2 to collided ribosomes to initiate a negative-feedback loop that prevents new ribosomes from translating defective mRNAs. Further, EDF1 regulates an immediate-early transcriptional response to ribosomal collisions. Our results uncover mechanisms through which EDF1 coordinates multiple responses of the ribosome-mediated quality control pathway and provide novel insights into the intersection of ribosome-mediated quality control with global transcriptional regulation.