Neurite initiation is the first step in neuronal development and occurs spontaneously in soft tissue environments. Although the mechanisms regulating the morphology of migratory cells on rigid substrates in cell culture are widely known, how soft environments modulate neurite initiation remains elusive. Using hydrogel cultures, pharmacologic inhibition, and genetic approaches, we reveal that paxillin-linked endocytosis and adhesion are components of a bistable switch controlling neurite initiation in a substrate modulus-dependent manner. On soft substrates, most paxillin binds to endocytic factors and facilitates vesicle invagination, elevating neuritogenic Rac1 activity and expression of genes encoding the endocytic machinery. By contrast, on rigid substrates, cells develop extensive adhesions, increase RhoA activity and sequester paxillin from the endocytic machinery, thereby delaying neurite initiation. Our results highlight paxillin as a core molecule in substrate modulus-controlled morphogenesis and define a mechanism whereby neuronal cells respond to environments exhibiting varying mechanical properties.
- Pei-Lin Cheng
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Kang Shen, Stanford University, United States
© 2017, Chang et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Reverse genetics is key to understanding protein function, but the mechanistic connection between a gene of interest and the observed phenotype is not always clear. Here we describe the use of proximity labeling using TurboID and site-specific quantification of biotinylated peptides to measure changes to the local protein environment of selected targets upon perturbation. We apply this technique, which we call PerTurboID, to understand how the P. falciparum exported kinase, FIKK4.1, regulates the function of the major virulence factor of the malaria causing parasite, PfEMP1. We generated independent TurboID fusions of 2 proteins that are predicted substrates of FIKK4.1 in a FIKK4.1 conditional KO parasite line. Comparing the abundance of site-specific biotinylated peptides between wildtype and kinase deletion lines reveals the differential accessibility of proteins to biotinylation, indicating changes to localization, protein-protein interactions, or protein structure which are mediated by FIKK4.1 activity. We further show that FIKK4.1 is likely the only FIKK kinase that controls surface levels of PfEMP1, but not other surface antigens, on the infected red blood cell under standard culture conditions. We believe PerTurboID is broadly applicable to study the impact of genetic or environmental perturbation on a selected cellular niche.
The primary cilium plays important roles in regulating cell differentiation, signal transduction, and tissue organization. Dysfunction of the primary cilium can lead to ciliopathies and cancer. The formation and organization of the primary cilium are highly associated with cell polarity proteins, such as the apical polarity protein CRB3. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CRB3 regulates ciliogenesis and the location of CRB3 remain unknown. Here, we show that CRB3, as a navigator, regulates vesicle trafficking in γ-tubulin ring complex (γTuRC) assembly during ciliogenesis and cilium-related Hh and Wnt signaling pathways in tumorigenesis. Crb3 knockout mice display severe defects of the primary cilium in the mammary ductal lumen and renal tubule, while mammary epithelial-specific Crb3 knockout mice exhibit the promotion of ductal epithelial hyperplasia and tumorigenesis. CRB3 is essential for lumen formation and ciliary assembly in the mammary epithelium. We demonstrate that CRB3 localizes to the basal body and that CRB3 trafficking is mediated by Rab11-positive endosomes. Significantly, CRB3 interacts with Rab11 to navigate GCP6/Rab11 trafficking vesicles to CEP290, resulting in intact γTuRC assembly. In addition, CRB3-depleted cells are unresponsive to the activation of the Hh signaling pathway, while CRB3 regulates the Wnt signaling pathway. Therefore, our studies reveal the molecular mechanisms by which CRB3 recognizes Rab11-positive endosomes to facilitate ciliogenesis and regulates cilium-related signaling pathways in tumorigenesis.