Current understanding of aggressive human basal-like triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains incomplete. In this study, we show endothelial lipase (LIPG) is aberrantly overexpressed in basal-like TNBCs. We demonstrate that LIPG is required for in vivo tumorigenicity and metastasis of TNBC cells. LIPG possesses a lipase-dependent function that supports cancer cell proliferation and a lipase-independent function that promotes invasiveness, stemness and basal/epithelial-mesenchymal transition features of TNBC. Mechanistically, LIPG executes its oncogenic function through its involvement in interferon-related DTX3L-ISG15 signaling, which regulates protein function and stability by ISGylation. We show that DTX3L, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, is required for maintaining LIPG protein levels in TNBC cells by inhibiting proteasome-mediated LIPG degradation. Inactivation of LIPG impairs DTX3L-ISG15 signaling, indicating the existence of DTX3L-LIPG-ISG15 signaling. We further reveal LIPG-ISG15 signaling is lipase-independent. We demonstrate that DTX3L-LIPG-ISG15 signaling is essential for malignancies of TNBC cells. Targeting this pathway provides a novel strategy for basal-like TNBC therapy.
- Qun Zhou
- Qun Zhou
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This animal study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (#0116028) of the University of Maryland School of Medicine.
Human subjects: Breast cancer tissue samples from breast cancer patients were provided by the Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital National Biobank of Korea, a member of the National Biobank of Republic of Korea, which is supported by the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Family Affairs. All tissue samples were obtained with informed consent from patients under protocols approved by the institutional review board of the Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital. The use of human tissue specimens in this study has been approved by the institutional review board of the Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital (Reference number: CNUHH-2016-153). The institutional approval is not required for publication of data from these human specimens due to institutional policies of the Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital.
- Ralph DeBerardinis, UT Southwestern Medical Center, United States
© 2018, Lo et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Bariatric surgery is a sustainable weight loss approach, including vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG). Obesity exacerbates tumor growth, while diet-induced weight loss impairs progression. It remains unknown how bariatric surgery-induced weight loss impacts cancer progression or alters response to therapy. Using a pre-clinical model of obesity followed by VSG or diet-induced weight loss, breast cancer progression and immune checkpoint blockade therapy were investigated. Weight loss by VSG or weight-matched dietary intervention before tumor engraftment protected against obesity-exacerbated tumor progression. However, VSG was not as effective as diet in reducing tumor burden despite achieving similar weight and adiposity loss. Leptin did not associate with changes in tumor burden; however, circulating IL-6 was elevated in VSG mice. Uniquely, VSG tumors displayed elevated inflammation and immune checkpoint ligand PD-L1+ myeloid and non-immune cells. VSG tumors also had reduced T lymphocytes and markers of cytolysis, suggesting an ineffective anti-tumor microenvironment which prompted investigation of immune checkpoint blockade. While obese mice were resistant to immune checkpoint blockade, anti-PD-L1 potently impaired tumor progression after VSG through improved anti-tumor immunity. Thus, in formerly obese mice, surgical weight loss followed by immunotherapy reduced breast cancer burden. Finally, we compared transcriptomic changes in adipose tissue after bariatric surgery from patients and mouse models. A conserved bariatric surgery-associated weight loss signature (BSAS) was identified which significantly associated with decreased tumor volume. Findings demonstrate conserved impacts of obesity and bariatric surgery-induced weight loss pathways associated with breast cancer progression.
DBC1 has been characterized as a key regulator of physiological and pathophysiological activities, such as DNA damage, senescence and tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism by which the functional stability of DBC1 is regulated has yet to be elucidated. Here, we report that the ubiquitination-mediated degradation of DBC1 is regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase SIAH2 and deubiquitinase OTUD5 under hypoxic stress. Mechanistically, hypoxia promoted DBC1 to interact with SIAH2 but not OTUD5, resulting in the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of DBC1 through the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway. SIAH2 knockout inhibited tumor cell proliferation and migration, which could be rescued by double knockout of SIAH2/CCAR2. Human tissue microarray analysis further revealed that the SIAH2/DBC1 axis was responsible for tumor progression under hypoxic stress. These findings define a key role of the hypoxia-mediated SIAH2-DBC1 pathway in the progression of human breast cancer and provide novel insights into the metastatic mechanism of breast cancer.