Type II topoisomerases manage DNA supercoiling and aid chromosome segregation using a complex, ATP-dependent duplex strand passage mechanism. Type IIB topoisomerases and their homologs support both archaeal/plant viability and meiotic recombination. Topo VI, a prototypical type IIB topoisomerase, comprises two Top6A and two Top6B protomers; how these subunits cooperate to engage two DNA segments and link ATP turnover to DNA transport is poorly understood. Using multiple biochemical approaches, we show that Top6B, which harbors the ATPase activity of topo VI, recognizes and exploits the DNA crossings present in supercoiled DNA to stimulate subunit dimerization by ATP. Top6B self-association in turn induces extensive DNA bending, which is needed to support duplex cleavage by Top6A. Our observations explain how topo VI tightly coordinates DNA crossover recognition and ATP binding with strand scission, providing useful insights into the operation of type IIB topoisomerases and related meiotic recombination and GHKL ATPase machineries.
- James M Berger
- Timothy J Wendorff
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Geeta J Narlikar, University of California, San Francisco, United States
© 2018, Wendorff & Berger
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Trans-differentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to activated state potentiates liver fibrosis through release of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, distorting the liver architecture. Since limited antifibrotics are available, pharmacological intervention targeting activated HSCs may be considered for therapy. A-kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) is a scaffolding protein that directs protein kinases A/C (PKA/PKC) and cyclins to specific locations spatiotemporally controlling their biological effects. It has been shown that AKAP12’s scaffolding functions are altered by phosphorylation. In previously published work, observed an association between AKAP12 phosphorylation and HSC activation. In this work, we demonstrate that AKAP12’s scaffolding activity toward the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident collagen chaperone, heat-shock protein 47 (HSP47) is strongly inhibited by AKAP12’s site-specific phosphorylation in activated HSCs. CRISPR-directed gene editing of AKAP12’s phospho-sites restores its scaffolding toward HSP47, inhibiting HSP47’s collagen maturation functions, and HSC activation. AKAP12 phospho-editing dramatically inhibits fibrosis, ER stress response, HSC inflammatory signaling, and liver injury in mice. Our overall findings suggest a pro-fibrogenic role of AKAP12 phosphorylation that may be targeted for therapeutic intervention in liver fibrosis.
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