(A) Firing-rate correlations of cortical excitatory neurons (average pairwise correlation between firing rates) as a function of thalamic drive with 11 Hz stimulation and sham (no stimulation). Without stimulation (sham), correlations in the network decrease as endogenous oscillations are suppressed. By contrast, with 11 Hz stimulation, correlations increase monotonically with thalamic input as the cells become entrained by the stimulation. (B) Peak power at the endogenous alpha frequency (=8 Hz) and at the stimulation frequency (=11 Hz) as a function of increasing thalamic drive. The power of the endogenous oscillations is gradually suppressed, whereas the opposite occurs at the stimulation frequency, suggesting a transition between oscillatory regimes. (C) Full-power spectral density distribution as a function of thalamic drive. Without stimulation, increase in thalamic drive destabilizes endogenous alpha oscillations and power is gradually suppressed. In presence of stimulation, the destabilization of endogenous oscillations is more abrupt and is replaced by spectral power at the stimulation frequency. Stimulation parameters for (A), (B) and (C) were 0.15, =11 Hz. (D) Mutual information between stimulation and network response as a function of increasing noise throughout the network, both with and without stimulation. When stimulation of weak amplitude (here 0.10) is applied, and the mutual information peaks at some intermediate value of noise, indicating that stochastic resonance is involved. (E) Phase distribution of firing-rate responses across trials at 11 Hz in the rest state (). In each trial, the stimulation was applied at a random phase. This is why the phase distribution is uniform over all angles (black line). The phase difference between the stimulation and the network response is also uniform, indicating that the network dynamics are not phase locked to the stimulus (i.e. there is no entrainment). (F) By contrast, in the task state (), cortical firing rates are phase locked to the stimulation, and the distribution shows a strong peak at the preferred phase (orange area). Here, and = 11 Hz.