Coordination of cell growth with division is essential for proper cell function. In budding yeast, although some molecular mechanisms responsible for cell size control during G1 have been elucidated, the mechanism by which cell size homeostasis is established remains to be discovered. Here, we developed a new technique based on quantification of histone levels to monitor cell cycle progression in individual cells with unprecedented accuracy. Our analysis establishes the existence of a mechanism controlling bud size in G2/M that prevents premature onset of anaphase, and controls the overall size variability. While most G1 mutants do not display impaired size homeostasis, mutants in which Cyclin B-Cdk regulation is altered display large size variability. Our study thus demonstrates that size homeostasis is not controlled by a G1-specific mechanism alone but is likely to be an emergent property resulting from the integration of several mechanisms that coordinate cell and bud growth with division.
The raw cell cycle data are available on a dedicated server http://charvin.igbmc.science/yeastcycledynamics/ and further details on how to use the site are available in Appendix 1. The autotrack software is available at GitHub: https://github.com/gcharvin/autotrack
Yeast Cell Cycle DynamicsPublicly available at the URL cited.
- Gilles Charvin
- Gilles Charvin
- Gilles Charvin
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Andrea Musacchio, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, Germany
© 2018, Garmendia-Torres et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The F-BAR protein Cdc15 is essential for cytokinesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and plays a key role in attaching the cytokinetic ring (CR) to the plasma membrane (PM). Cdc15’s abilities to bind to the membrane and oligomerize via its F-BAR domain are inhibited by phosphorylation of its intrinsically disordered region (IDR). Multiple cell polarity kinases regulate Cdc15 IDR phosphostate, and of these the DYRK kinase Pom1 phosphorylation sites on Cdc15 have been shown in vivo to prevent CR formation at cell tips. Here, we compared the ability of Pom1 to control Cdc15 phosphostate and cortical localization to that of other Cdc15 kinases: Kin1, Pck1, and Shk1. We identified distinct but overlapping cohorts of Cdc15 phosphorylation sites targeted by each kinase, and the number of sites correlated with each kinases’ abilities to influence Cdc15 PM localization. Coarse-grained simulations predicted that cumulative IDR phosphorylation moves the IDRs of a dimer apart and toward the F-BAR tips. Further, simulations indicated that the overall negative charge of phosphorylation masks positively charged amino acids necessary for F-BAR oligomerization and membrane interaction. Finally, simulations suggested that dephosphorylated Cdc15 undergoes phase separation driven by IDR interactions. Indeed, dephosphorylated but not phosphorylated Cdc15 undergoes liquid–liquid phase separation to form droplets in vitro that recruit Cdc15 binding partners. In cells, Cdc15 phosphomutants also formed PM-bound condensates that recruit other CR components. Together, we propose that a threshold of Cdc15 phosphorylation by assorted kinases prevents Cdc15 condensation on the PM and antagonizes CR assembly.
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) are central kinase modules of two opposing signaling pathways that control eukaryotic cell growth and metabolism in response to the availability of energy and nutrients. Accordingly, energy depletion activates AMPK to inhibit growth, while nutrients and high energy levels activate TORC1 to promote growth. Both in mammals and lower eukaryotes such as yeast, the AMPK and TORC1 pathways are wired to each other at different levels, which ensures homeostatic control of growth and metabolism. In this context, a previous study (Hughes Hallet et. al, 2015) reported that AMPK in yeast, i.e. Snf1, prevents the transient TORC1 reactivation during the early phase following acute glucose starvation, but the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. Using a combination of unbiased mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomics, genetic, biochemical, and physiological experiments, we show here that Snf1 temporally maintains TORC1 inactive in glucose-starved cells primarily through the TORC1-regulatory protein Pib2. Our data, therefore, extend the function of Pib2 to a hub that integrates both glucose and, as reported earlier, glutamine signals to control TORC1. We further demonstrate that Snf1 phosphorylates the TORC1 effector kinase Sch9 within its N-terminal region and thereby antagonizes the phosphorylation of a C-terminal TORC1-target residue within Sch9 itself that is critical for its activity. The consequences of Snf1-mediated phosphorylation of Pib2 and Sch9 are physiologically additive and sufficient to explain the role of Snf1 in short-term inhibition of TORC1 in acutely glucose-starved cells.