Molecular chaperones promote the folding and macromolecular assembly of a diverse set of 'client' proteins. How ubiquitous chaperone machineries direct their activities towards specific sets of substrates is unclear. Through the use of mouse genetics, imaging and quantitative proteomics we uncover that ZMYND10 is a novel co-chaperone that confers specificity for the FKBP8-HSP90 chaperone complex towards axonemal dynein clients required for cilia motility. Loss of ZMYND10 perturbs the chaperoning of axonemal dynein heavy chains, triggering broader degradation of dynein motor subunits. We show that pharmacological inhibition of FKBP8 phenocopies dynein motor instability associated with the loss of ZMYND10 in airway cells and that human disease-causing variants of ZMYND10 disrupt its ability to act as an FKBP8-HSP90 co-chaperone. Our study indicates that Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD), caused by mutations in dynein assembly factors disrupting cytoplasmic pre-assembly of axonemal dynein motors, should be considered a cell-type specific protein-misfolding disease.
The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited and is available on the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD006849.
- Girish R Mali
- Patricia L Yeyati
- Daniel O Dodd
- Peter A Tennant
- Margaret A Keighren
- Pleasantine Mill
- Amaya Garcia-Munoz
- Alex von Kreisheim
- Girish R Mali
- Andrew Paul Jarman
- Pleasantine Mill
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All animal work was approved by a University of Edinburgh internal ethics committee and was performed in accordance with institutional guidelines under license by the UK Home Office (PPL 60/4424). Mice were maintained in an SPF environment in facilities of the University of Edinburgh (PEL 60/2605).
- Jeremy F Reiter, University of California, San Francisco, United States
© 2018, Mali et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Proliferating cells undergo metabolic changes in synchrony with cell cycle progression and cell division. Mitochondria provide fuel, metabolites, and ATP during different phases of the cell cycle, however it is not completely understood how mitochondrial function and the cell cycle are coordinated. CLUH (clustered mitochondria homolog) is a post-transcriptional regulator of mRNAs encoding mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation and several metabolic pathways. Here, we show a role of CLUH in regulating the expression of astrin, which is involved in metaphase to anaphase progression, centrosome integrity, and mTORC1 inhibition. We find that CLUH binds both the SPAG5 mRNA and its product astrin, and controls the synthesis and the stability of the full-length astrin-1 isoform. We show that CLUH interacts with astrin-1 specifically during interphase. Astrin-depleted cells show mTORC1 hyperactivation and enhanced anabolism. On the other hand, cells lacking CLUH show decreased astrin levels and increased mTORC1 signaling, but cannot sustain anaplerotic and anabolic pathways. In absence of CLUH, cells fail to grow during G1, and progress faster through the cell cycle, indicating dysregulated matching of growth, metabolism, and cell cycling. Our data reveal a role of CLUH in coupling growth signaling pathways and mitochondrial metabolism with cell cycle progression.
De novo limb regeneration after amputation is restricted in mammals to the distal digit tip. Central to this regenerative process is the blastema, a heterogeneous population of lineage-restricted, dedifferentiated cells that ultimately orchestrates regeneration of the amputated bone and surrounding soft tissue. To investigate skeletal regeneration, we made use of spatial transcriptomics to characterize the transcriptional profile specifically within the blastema. Using this technique, we generated a gene signature with high specificity for the blastema in both our spatial data, as well as other previously published single-cell RNA-sequencing transcriptomic studies. To elucidate potential mechanisms distinguishing regenerative from non-regenerative healing, we applied spatial transcriptomics to an aging model. Consistent with other forms of repair, our digit amputation mouse model showed a significant impairment in regeneration in aged mice. Contrasting young and aged mice, spatial analysis revealed a metabolic shift in aged blastema associated with an increased bioenergetic requirement. This enhanced metabolic turnover was associated with increased hypoxia and angiogenic signaling, leading to excessive vascularization and altered regenerated bone architecture in aged mice. Administration of the metabolite oxaloacetate decreased the oxygen consumption rate of the aged blastema and increased WNT signaling, leading to enhanced in vivo bone regeneration. Thus, targeting cell metabolism may be a promising strategy to mitigate aging-induced declines in tissue regeneration.