For each value of the cellular proportion of disruptive subunits (f) and threshold for efficient Z-ring incorporation (T), we performed 10,000 independent simulations. In each simulation, we generated a vector X = (x1, x2,. .., x200), where xi represents the number of laterally disruptive subunits in the ith protofilament, selected from the Binomial distribution with mean 50f (Figure 7—figure supplement 1). For a protofilament with more or less laterally disruptive subunits than the threshold T, we set the probability of Z-ring incorporation to 0.01 or 0.99, respectively. The Boolean vector V represents the incorporation state of each protofilament. We then calculated the percentage of laterally disruptive subunits incorporated into the Z-ring as . Circles indicate the mean percentages of laterally disruptive subunits in the Z-ring across simulations with a given value of f and T, and solid vertical lines represent the standard deviations. As the total proportion of laterally disruptive subunits increases, the proportion of laterally disruptive subunits incorporated into the Z-ring decreases, consistent with our experimental results showing a faint or non-existent Z-ring with dominant expression of laterally disruptive mutants (Figure 7E).