Canonical transient receptor channels (TRPC) are non-selective cation channels. They are involved in receptor-operated Ca2+ signaling and have been proposed to act as store-operated channels (SOC). Their malfunction is related to cardiomyopathies and their modulation by small molecules has been shown to be effective against renal cancer cells. The molecular mechanism underlying the complex activation and regulation is poorly understood. Here, we report the electron cryo-microscopy structure of zebrafish TRPC4 in its unliganded (apo), closed state at an overall resolution of 3.6 Å. The structure reveals the molecular architecture of the cation conducting pore, including the selectivity filter and lower gate. The cytoplasmic domain contains two key hubs that have been shown to interact with modulating proteins. Structural comparisons with other TRP channels give novel insights into the general architecture and domain organization of this superfamily of channels and help to understand their function and pharmacology.
The atomic coordinates and cryo-EM maps for TRPC4DR are available at the Protein Data Bank (PDB)/Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) databases. The accession numbers are 6G1K/EMD-4339. The raw data sets generated in the current study (motion corrected and dose weighted mrc files and box files; 215 GB) are available from the corresponding author upon request.
Electron cryo-microscopy structure of the canonical TRPC4 ion channelPublicly available at the RCSB Protein Data Bank (accession number ID 6G1K).
Electron cryo-microscopy structure of the canonical TRPC4 ion channelPublicly available at the EMDataBank (accession no. EMD-4339).
- Stefan Raunser
- Stefan Raunser
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Kenton J Swartz, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, United States
© 2018, Vinayagam et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Calcium ion movements between cellular stores and the cytosol govern muscle contraction, the most energy-consuming function in mammals, which confers skeletal myofibers a pivotal role in glycemia regulation. Chronic myoplasmic calcium elevation (“calcium stress”), found in malignant hyperthermia-susceptible (MHS) patients and multiple myopathies, has been suggested to underlie the progression from hyperglycemia to insulin resistance. What drives such progression remains elusive. We find that muscle cells derived from MHS patients have increased content of an activated fragment of GSK3β — a specialized kinase that inhibits glycogen synthase, impairing glucose utilization and delineating a path to hyperglycemia. We also find decreased content of junctophilin1, an essential structural protein that colocalizes in the couplon with the voltage-sensing CaV1.1, the calcium channel RyR1 and calpain1, accompanied by an increase in a 44 kDa junctophilin1 fragment (JPh44) that moves into nuclei. We trace these changes to activated proteolysis by calpain1, secondary to increased myoplasmic calcium. We demonstrate that a JPh44-like construct induces transcriptional changes predictive of increased glucose utilization in myoblasts, including less transcription and translation of GSK3β and decreased transcription of proteins that reduce utilization of glucose. These effects reveal a stress-adaptive response, mediated by the novel regulator of transcription JPh44.
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