(A) Schematic illustrating implantation sites for LFP, EEG (fEEG and pEEG; frontal and parietal EEG) and EMG electrodes. S1, S2; primary and secondary somatosensory areas; AC, auditory cortex; PFC, medial prefrontal cortex. (B) Histological sections of representative cases confirming the location of the recording sites. Arrowheads mark site of lesion caused by electrocoagulation. Anteroposterior stereotaxic coordinates are given relative to Bregma (Bg). (C) Representative raw traces of NREMS for WT (left) and CaV3.3 KO (right) animals, showing (from top to bottom) the EMG, EEG and LFP signals for S1, S2, AC and PFC (infra-/prelimbic area). The heart beat is visible on the EMG trace. (D) Power spectra corresponding to the LFP recordings, plotted in a linear-log plot to emphasize the three frequency bands of interest: the SO (0.5–1.5 Hz), the delta (1.5–4 Hz) and the sigma band (10–15 Hz). The sigma band is colored and shown in expanded log-log plots at the bottom. Normalized mean ±S.E.M. values of power spectral density are shown for S1, S2, AC and PFC for both genotypes (WT: n = 9 for S1, n = 8 for S2, n = 6 for AC, n = 6 for PFC; CaV3.3 KO: n = 13 for S1, n = 13 for S2, n = 8 for AC, n = 7 for PFC). (E) Mean total power for the three frequency bands across S1, S2, AC and PFC, with values for individual animals shown in points (dark gray for WT, light gray for CaV3.3 KO animals), and mean values ± S.E.M. in color diamonds. Statistical significance was tested for each area separately, comparing WT and CaV3.3 KO. Mann-Whitney non-parametric test for WT vs CaV3.3 KO, for S1, p=0.003 for the SO, p=0.007 for delta, p=0.021 for sigma; for S2, p=0.008 for the SO, p=0.005 for delta, p=6.9×10−5 for sigma; for AC, p=0.02 for the SO, p>0.05 for delta and sigma; for PFC, all p-values>0.05. Bonferroni-corrected α-threshold for the three frequency bands was 0.017.