(A) Population-level correlation between respiratory protein levels of Cit1-, Mdh1-, Kgd2-, Ndi1-, Sdh2- and Cox6-yECitrine and the lag time. Lag times and respiratory protein levels are correlated after pre-growth in maltose or galactose. The cultures that did not experience glucose (steady-state maltose or galactose) were not included in the correlations. The error bars for flow cytometry represent the range for two replicates. (B) The effect of decreasing respiratory activity on HDB. Two methods were used to lower respiratory activity: chemical inhibition by antimycin A (µg/ml) added after shift to maltose and a respiratory mutant strain (cox6Δ). The error bars represent SEM for three replicates. (C) The effect of increasing respiratory activity on HDB. An overexpression strain of HAP4 showing increased respiratory capacity was compared to the wild-type. Both strains were pre-grown in either maltose (circles) or galactose (triangles) before the transfer to glucose, and finally maltose. The error bars represent the range for two replicates. (D) Induction of respiratory proteins, but not maltose genes, is an early predictor of escape from the lag phase. Expression of Mal11-, Mal12-, Cit1-, Mdh1-, Kgd2-, Ndi1-, Sdh2- and Cox6-yECitrine is quantified in single cells which will grow into microcolonies through the lag phase. The graphs show the time-resolved cross-correlation between microcolony growth rate and protein expression. For Cox6-yECtirine and Cit1-yECtirine, the cross-correlation shows a peak around 5 hr, meaning that in average, expression of these proteins anticipates growth resumption 5 hr later. However, for maltose genes the peak is located slightly around 0 hr, which implies that induction of these proteins coincides with growth resumption. Number of the cells is detailed in the methods section.