(A) Interaural time differences represent the difference between when a sound reaches the left ear (L) and the right ear (R). They can occur between the fine structure of the sound (blue), or the overall ‘envelope’ of the sound (green). (B) Differences in level result from a disparity in amplitudes (height of peaks and troughs) between the two ears (labeled ‘L’ and ‘R’). (C) The superior olivary complex receives input from each ear (black lines). The medial superior olive (MSO) receives excitation from both ears (blue lines). The lateral superior olive (LSO) receives excitation from the ear on the same side (blue lines) and inhibition from the ear on the opposite side (red lines) through the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), which is known for its exquisite temporal precision.