We introduce a computer-based simulation model for coarse-grained, effective motor-mediated interaction between microtubule pairs to study the time-scales that compose cytoplasmic streaming. We characterise microtubule dynamics in two-dimensional systems by chronologically arranging five distinct processes of varying duration that make up streaming, from microtubule pairs to collective dynamics. The structures found were polarity sorted due to the propulsion of antialigned microtubules. This also gave rise to the formation of large polar-aligned domains, and streaming at the domain boundaries. Correlation functions, mean squared displacements, and velocity distributions reveal a cascade of processes ultimately leading to microtubule streaming and advection, spanning multiple microtubule lengths. The characteristic times for the processes span over three orders of magnitude from fast single-microtubule processes to slow collective processes. Our approach can be used to directly test the importance of molecular components, such as motors and crosslinking proteins between microtubules, on the collective dynamics at cellular scale.
Source code and input files required to simulate microtubule-effective motor systems using the freely available, open-source Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS) have been provided.
- Özer Duman
- Guglielmo Saggiorato
The authors declare that there was no funding for this work.
- Raymond E Goldstein, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
© 2019, Ravichandran et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Cells are exposed to a wide variety of internal and external stresses. Although many studies have focused on cellular responses to acute and severe stresses, little is known about how cellular systems adapt to sublethal chronic stresses. Using mammalian cells in culture, we discovered that they adapt to chronic mild stresses of up to two weeks, notably proteotoxic stresses such as heat, by increasing their size and translation, thereby scaling the amount of total protein. These adaptations render them more resilient to persistent and subsequent stresses. We demonstrate that Hsf1, well known for its role in acute stress responses, is required for the cell size increase, and that the molecular chaperone Hsp90 is essential for coupling the cell size increase to augmented translation. We term this translational reprogramming the ‘rewiring stress response’, and propose that this protective process of chronic stress adaptation contributes to the increase in size as cells get older, and that its failure promotes aging.
The canonical target of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), Protein Kinase A (PKA), has been shown to stimulate mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) by phosphorylating the mTOR-regulating protein Raptor at Ser791 following β-adrenergic stimulation. The objective of these studies is to test whether GLP-1R agonists similarly stimulate mTORC1 via PKA phosphorylation of Raptor at Ser791 and whether this contributes to the weight loss effect of the therapeutic GLP-1R agonist liraglutide. We measured phosphorylation of the mTORC1 signaling target ribosomal protein S6 in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells expressing GLP-1R (CHO-Glp1r) treated with liraglutide in combination with PKA inhibitors. We also assessed liraglutide-mediated phosphorylation of the PKA substrate RRXS*/T* motif in CHO-Glp1r cells expressing Myc-tagged wild-type (WT) Raptor or a PKA-resistant (Ser791Ala) Raptor mutant. Finally, we measured the body weight response to liraglutide in WT mice and mice with a targeted knock-in of PKA-resistant Ser791Ala Raptor. Liraglutide increased phosphorylation of S6 and the PKA motif in WT Raptor in a PKA-dependent manner but failed to stimulate phosphorylation of the PKA motif in Ser791Ala Raptor in CHO-Glp1r cells. Lean Ser791Ala Raptor knock-in mice were resistant to liraglutide-induced weight loss but not setmelanotide-induced (melanocortin-4 receptor-dependent) weight loss. Diet-induced obese Ser791Ala Raptor knock-in mice were not resistant to liraglutide-induced weight loss; however, there was weight-dependent variation such that there was a tendency for obese Ser791Ala Raptor knock-in mice of lower relative body weight to be resistant to liraglutide-induced weight loss compared to weight-matched controls. Together, these findings suggest that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Raptor at Ser791 contributes to liraglutide-induced weight loss.