Nramp family transporters—expressed in organisms from bacteria to humans—enable uptake of essential divalent transition metals via an alternating-access mechanism that also involves proton transport. We present high-resolution structures of Deinococcus radiodurans (Dra)Nramp in multiple conformations to provide a thorough description of the Nramp transport cycle by identifying the key intramolecular rearrangements and changes to the metal coordination sphere. Strikingly, while metal transport requires cycling from outward- to inward-open states, efficient proton transport still occurs in outward-locked (but not inward-locked) DraNramp. We propose a model in which metal and proton enter the transporter via the same external pathway to the binding site, but follow separate routes to the cytoplasm, which could facilitate the co-transport of two cationic species. Our results illustrate the flexibility of the LeuT fold to support a broad range of substrate transport and conformational change mechanisms.
Source data for the Nramp sequence alignment have been provided as Figure 2-source data 1. Structural coordinates and structure factors for each crystal structure have been deposited in the PDB under accession codes 6D9W, 6C3I, 6BU5, and 6D91. The unprocessed X-ray diffraction images have been deposited in the SBGrid Data Bank under accession codes 332, 333, 334, 567, 564, and 576. All other data generated or analyzed in this study are included in the manuscript.
- Rachelle Gaudet
- Christina M Zimanyi
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- José D Faraldo-Gómez, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, United States
© 2019, Bozzi et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Chain-length specific subsets of diacylglycerol (DAG) lipids are proposed to regulate differential physiological responses ranging from signal transduction to modulation of the membrane properties. However, the mechanism or molecular players regulating the subsets of DAG species remains unknown. Here, we uncover the role of a conserved eukaryotic protein family, DISCO-interacting protein 2 (DIP2) as a homeostatic regulator of a chemically distinct subset of DAGs using yeast, fly and mouse models. Genetic and chemical screens along with lipidomics analysis in yeast reveal that DIP2 prevents the toxic accumulation of specific DAGs in the logarithmic growth phase, which otherwise leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress. We also show that the fatty acyl-AMP ligase-like domains of DIP2 are essential for the redirection of the flux of DAG subspecies to storage lipid, triacylglycerols. DIP2 is associated with vacuoles through mitochondria-vacuole contact sites and such modulation of selective DAG abundance by DIP2 is found to be crucial for optimal vacuole membrane fusion and consequently osmoadaptation in yeast. Thus, the study illuminates an unprecedented DAG metabolism route and provides new insights on how cell fine-tunes DAG subspecies for cellular homeostasis and environmental adaptation.
Members of the bacterial T6SS amidase effector (Tae) superfamily of toxins are delivered between competing bacteria to degrade cell wall peptidoglycan. Although Taes share a common substrate, they exhibit distinct antimicrobial potency across different competitor species. To investigate the molecular basis governing these differences, we quantitatively defined the functional determinants of Tae1 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 using a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and a high-throughput in vivo genetic approach called deep mutational scanning (DMS). As expected, combined analyses confirmed the role of critical residues near the Tae1 catalytic center. Unexpectedly, DMS revealed substantial contributions to enzymatic activity from a much larger, ring-like functional hot spot extending around the entire circumference of the enzyme. Comparative DMS across distinct growth conditions highlighted how functional contribution of different surfaces is highly context-dependent, varying alongside composition of targeted cell walls. These observations suggest that Tae1 engages with the intact cell wall network through a more distributed three-dimensional interaction interface than previously appreciated, providing an explanation for observed differences in antimicrobial potency across divergent Gram-negative competitors. Further binding studies of several Tae1 variants with their cognate immunity protein demonstrate that requirements to maintain protection from Tae activity may be a significant constraint on the mutational landscape of tae1 toxicity in the wild. In total, our work reveals that Tae diversification has likely been shaped by multiple independent pressures to maintain interactions with binding partners that vary across bacterial species and conditions.