Animals respond to mitochondrial stress with the induction of mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt). A cascade of events occurs upon UPRmt activation, ultimately triggering a transcriptional response governed by two transcription factors: DVE-1 and ATFS-1. Here we identify SUMO-specific peptidase ULP-4 as a positive regulator of C. elegans UPRmt to control SUMOylation status of DVE-1 and ATFS-1. SUMOylation affects these two axes in the transcriptional program of UPRmt with distinct mechanisms: change of DVE-1 subcellular localization vs. change of ATFS-1 stability and activity. Our findings reveal a post-translational modification that promotes immune response and lifespan extension during mitochondrial stress.
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Ying Liu
- Ying Liu
- Ying Liu
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Hong Zhang, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
© 2019, Gao et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The F-BAR protein Cdc15 is essential for cytokinesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and plays a key role in attaching the cytokinetic ring (CR) to the plasma membrane (PM). Cdc15’s abilities to bind to the membrane and oligomerize via its F-BAR domain are inhibited by phosphorylation of its intrinsically disordered region (IDR). Multiple cell polarity kinases regulate Cdc15 IDR phosphostate, and of these the DYRK kinase Pom1 phosphorylation sites on Cdc15 have been shown in vivo to prevent CR formation at cell tips. Here, we compared the ability of Pom1 to control Cdc15 phosphostate and cortical localization to that of other Cdc15 kinases: Kin1, Pck1, and Shk1. We identified distinct but overlapping cohorts of Cdc15 phosphorylation sites targeted by each kinase, and the number of sites correlated with each kinases’ abilities to influence Cdc15 PM localization. Coarse-grained simulations predicted that cumulative IDR phosphorylation moves the IDRs of a dimer apart and toward the F-BAR tips. Further, simulations indicated that the overall negative charge of phosphorylation masks positively charged amino acids necessary for F-BAR oligomerization and membrane interaction. Finally, simulations suggested that dephosphorylated Cdc15 undergoes phase separation driven by IDR interactions. Indeed, dephosphorylated but not phosphorylated Cdc15 undergoes liquid–liquid phase separation to form droplets in vitro that recruit Cdc15 binding partners. In cells, Cdc15 phosphomutants also formed PM-bound condensates that recruit other CR components. Together, we propose that a threshold of Cdc15 phosphorylation by assorted kinases prevents Cdc15 condensation on the PM and antagonizes CR assembly.
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