Pyomyositis is a severe bacterial infection of skeletal muscle, commonly affecting children in tropical regions, predominantly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. To understand the contribution of bacterial genomic factors to pyomyositis, we conducted a genome-wide association study of S. aureus cultured from 101 children with pyomyositis and 417 children with asymptomatic nasal carriage attending the Angkor Hospital for Children, Cambodia. We found a strong relationship between bacterial genetic variation and pyomyositis, with estimated heritability 63.8% (95% CI 49.2-78.4%). The presence of the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) locus increased the odds of pyomyositis 130-fold (p=10-17.9). The signal of association mapped both to the PVL-coding sequence and the sequence immediately upstream. Together these regions explained over 99.9% of heritability (95% CI 93.5-100%). Our results establish staphylococcal pyomyositis, like tetanus and diphtheria, as critically dependent on a single toxin and demonstrate the potential for association studies to identify specific bacterial genes promoting severe human disease.
Sequence data has been submitted to Short Read Archive (Bioproject ID PRJNA418899).
- Nicholas PJ Day
- Catrin E Moore
- Daniel J Wilson
- Daniel J Wilson
- David J Wyllie
- Rory Bowden
- Nicholas PJ Day
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Human subjects: Approval for this study was provided by the AHC institutional review board and the Oxford Tropical Ethics Committee (507-12).
- Julian Parkhill, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, United Kingdom
© 2019, Young et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
De novo gene origination, where a previously non-genic genomic sequence becomes genic through evolution, has been increasingly recognized as an important source of evolutionary novelty across diverse taxa. Many de novo genes have been proposed to be protein-coding, and in several cases have been experimentally shown to yield protein products. However, the systematic study of de novo proteins has been hampered by doubts regarding the translation of their transcripts without the experimental observation of protein products. Using a systematic, ORF-focused mass-spectrometry-first computational approach, we identify almost 1000 unannotated open reading frames with evidence of translation (utORFs) in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, 371 of which have canonical start codons. To quantify the comparative genomic similarity of these utORFs across Drosophila and to infer phylostratigraphic age, we further develop a synteny-based protein similarity approach. Combining these results with reference datasets on tissue- and life-stage-specific transcription and conservation, we identify different properties amongst these utORFs. Contrary to expectations, the fastest-evolving utORFs are not the youngest evolutionarily. We observed more utORFs in the brain than in the testis. Most of the identified utORFs may be of de novo origin, even accounting for the possibility of false-negative similarity detection. Finally, sequence divergence after an inferred de novo origin event remains substantial, raising the possibility that de novo proteins turn over frequently. Our results suggest that there is substantial unappreciated diversity in de novo protein evolution: many more may exist than have been previously appreciated; there may be divergent evolutionary trajectories; and de novo proteins may be gained and lost frequently. All in all, there may not exist a single characteristic model of de novo protein evolution, but instead, there may be diverse evolutionary trajectories for de novo proteins.
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