Because multivariate autoregressive models have failed to adequately account for the complexity of neural signals, researchers have predominantly relied on non-parametric methods when studying the relations between brain and behavior. Using medial temporal lobe (MTL) recordings from 96 neurosurgical patients, we show that time series models with volatility described by a multivariate stochastic latent-variable process and lagged interactions between signals in different brain regions provide new insights into the dynamics of brain function. The implied volatility inferred from our process positively correlates with high-frequency spectral activity, a signal that correlates with neuronal activity. We show that volatility features derived from our model can reliably decode memory states, and that this classifier performs as well as those using spectral features. Using the directional connections between brain regions during complex cognitive process provided by the model, we uncovered perirhinal-hippocampal desynchronization in the MTL regions that is associated with successful memory encoding.
The iEEG dataset collected from epileptic patients in this paper is available and to protect patients' confidentiality, can be requested at http://memory.psych.upenn.edu/RAM_Public_Data. The cmlreaders repository for reading in the data is at https://github.com/pennmem/. The main script for the paper is available at https://github.com/tungphan87/MSV_EEG.
- Michael Kahana
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Human subjects: Data were collected at the following centers: Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Mayo Clinic, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Emory University Hospital, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Columbia University Medical Center, National Institutes of Health, and University of Washington Medical Center and collected and coordinated via the Data Coordinating Center (DCC) at the University of Pennsylvania. The research protocol for the Data Coordinating Center (DCC) was approved by the University of Pennsylvania IRB (protocol 820553) and informed consent was obtained from each participant.
- Michael Breakspear, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Australia
© 2019, Phan et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Mouse models have been used extensively to study human coronary artery disease (CAD) or atherosclerosis and to test therapeutic targets. However, whether mouse and human share similar genetic factors and pathogenic mechanisms of atherosclerosis has not been thoroughly investigated in a data-driven manner. We conducted a cross-species comparison study to better understand atherosclerosis pathogenesis between species by leveraging multiomics data. Specifically, we compared genetically driven and thus CAD-causal gene networks and pathways, by using human GWAS of CAD from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium and mouse GWAS of atherosclerosis from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP) followed by integration with functional multiomics human (STARNET and GTEx) and mouse (HMDP) databases. We found that mouse and human shared >75% of CAD causal pathways. Based on network topology, we then predicted key regulatory genes for both the shared pathways and species-specific pathways, which were further validated through the use of single cell data and the latest CAD GWAS. In sum, our results should serve as a much-needed guidance for which human CAD-causal pathways can or cannot be further evaluated for novel CAD therapies using mouse models.
Candida albicans, an opportunistic human pathogen, poses a significant threat to human health and is associated with significant socio-economic burden. Current antifungal treatments fail, at least in part, because C. albicans can initiate a strong drug tolerance response that allows some cells to grow at drug concentrations above their minimal inhibitory concentration. To better characterize this cytoprotective tolerance program at the molecular single-cell level, we used a nanoliter droplet-based transcriptomics platform to profile thousands of individual fungal cells and establish their subpopulation characteristics in the absence and presence of antifungal drugs. Profiles of untreated cells exhibit heterogeneous expression that correlates with cell cycle stage with distinct metabolic and stress responses. At 2 days post-fluconazole exposure (a time when tolerance is measurable), surviving cells bifurcate into two major subpopulations: one characterized by the upregulation of genes encoding ribosomal proteins, rRNA processing machinery, and mitochondrial cellular respiration capacity, termed the Ribo-dominant (Rd) state; and the other enriched for genes encoding stress responses and related processes, termed the Stress-dominant (Sd) state. This bifurcation persists at 3 and 6 days post-treatment. We provide evidence that the ribosome assembly stress response (RASTR) is activated in these subpopulations and may facilitate cell survival.