Sequences are from bacteria (blue), mitochondria (pink), and chloroplast (black), including Bacillus PS3 (BACP3), E. coli (ECOLI), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MYCTU), S. cerevisiae (YEAST), Homo sapiens (HUMAN), Bos taurus (BOVINE), and Spinacia oleracea (SPIOL). The functionally important Arg residues for proton translocation are in blue. Other important residues for proton translocation identified by mutagenesis in E. coli ATP synthase are in red. Strictly conserved residues are in bold. Figure was generated with ESPript 3.0 (Robert and Gouet, 2014).