1. Cell Biology
  2. Genetics and Genomics
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Endoplasmic reticulum-associated SKN-1A/Nrf1 mediates a cytoplasmic unfolded protein response and promotes longevity

  1. Nicolas J Lehrbach
  2. Gary Ruvkun  Is a corresponding author
  1. Massachusetts General Hospital, United States
  2. Harvard Medical School, United States
Research Advance
Cite this article as: eLife 2019;8:e44425 doi: 10.7554/eLife.44425
6 figures, 2 tables and 1 additional file

Figures

Figure 1 with 5 supplements
Misfolded proteins activate SKN-1A.

(a, b) Fluorescence images showing rpt-3p::gfp expression in various unc-54 mutants. (c) Temperature dependent paralysis and rpt-3p::gfp effects of unc-54 alleles. (d) Fluorescence images showing rpt-3p::gfp induction in unc-54(mg519) and unc-54(e1301) requires skn-1a. (e) Quantification of rpt-3p::gfp expression in various unc-54 mutants. (f) Fluorescence images showing Aβ expression in muscle increases rpt-3p::gfp fluorescence in wild type but not in skn-1a mutant animals. (g) Quantification of Aβ-induced activation of rpt-3p::gfp in various mutant backgrounds. Panels e and g: ****p<0.0001; ***p<0.001; ns p>0.05. (one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparison test), P-value compared to wild type unless otherwise indicated.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.44425.003
Figure 1—figure supplement 1
Proteasome subunit mutations that activate SKN-1A.

(a) Fluorescence images showing rpt-3p::gfp activation in proteasome subunit mutant strains. Scale bar shows 100 μm. (c) Images showing larval lethality of proteasome subunit mutants on skn-1(RNAi) but not control RNAi. Scale bar shows 1 mm.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.44425.004
Figure 1—figure supplement 2
Fertility defects of proteasome subunit mutant strains.

Sterility of proteasome subunit mutants raised at (a) 20°C and (b) 25°C. At 20°C n = 20–60; at 25°C n = 10. All animals contain the mgIs72 rpt-3p::gfp integrated transgene.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.44425.005
Figure 1—figure supplement 3
Temperature sensitive paralysis of unc-54 mutants.

Percentage of adult animals paralyzed at 20°C and 25°C. n > 100 for each strain and condition.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.44425.006
Figure 1—figure supplement 4
unc-54ts mutants activate SKN-1A.

Fluorescence images showing accumulation of SKN-1A[∆DBD]::GFP in muscle cells of unc-54(e1301) and unc-54(mg519) animals. Scale bar shows 10 μm.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.44425.007
Figure 1—figure supplement 5
Increased expression of rpt-3p::gfp in hsf-1 mutants.

(a) Quantification of rpt-3p::gfp expression in hsf-1(sy441) and wild type animals at (a) 20°C. ns p>0.05 (Welch’s t-test) (b) Quantification of rpt-3p::gfp expression 24 hr after upshift to 25°C. rpt-3p::gfp expression is increased in hsf-1(sy441) mutants in a skn-1a-dependent manner. ****p<0.0001; ns p>0.05 (one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparisons test). (c) Fluorescence images showing increased rpt-3p::gfp expression in wild type, hsf-1(sy441) and hsf-1(sy441); skn-1a(mg570) double mutant animals 24 hr after upshift to 25°C. Scale bar shows 100 μm.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.44425.008
Proteasome impairment in muscle causes cell autonomous activation of SKN-1A.

(a) Fluorescence images showing rpt-3p::gfp expression in animals expressing a dominant negative proteasome subunit in the muscle (myo-3p::pbs-5[T65A]). (b) Quantification of rpt-3p::gfp expression in animals expressing a mutant proteasome subunit in the muscle. ***p<0.001 (Welch’s t-test). (c) Comparison of locomotor rate between wild type and myo-3p::pbs-5[T65A] transgenic animals. (d) Comparison of locomotor rate between wild type and skn-1a mutant animals carrying the myo-3p::pbs-5[T65A] transgene on day 1 of adulthood.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.44425.009
Figure 3 with 1 supplement
Proteasome function is not impaired in animals expressing misfolded proteins.

(a) Fluorescence micrographs showing impairment of UB(G76V)::GFP degradation in various genotypes. Arrows indicate UB(G76V)::GFP accumulation in muscle cells. (b) Comparison of UB(G76V)::GFP stabilization in muscles of animals carrying various SKN-1A-activating transgenes or mutations. *The skn-1a mutation used in the pbs-5[T65A] strain is mg674, which is an identical CRISPR-induced lesion to mg570. All animals were examined for UB(G76V)::GFP stabilization in the muscle at the L4 stage. We note that animals lacking SKN-1A show a defect in basal proteasome function, causing accumulation of UB(G76V)::GFP. This basal effect is limited to the intestine, and so we were still able to detect muscle-specific effects.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.44425.010
Figure 3—figure supplement 1
Comparison of rpt-3p::gfp activation and UB(G76V)::GFP accumulation in animals exposed to low doses of bortezomib.

Fluorescence images showing rpt-3p::gfp and rpl-28p::ub(G76V)::gfp transgenic animals raised on plates supplemented with different concentrations of bortezomib, or DMSO control. rpt-3p::gfp is not induced by 2 ng/ml bortezomib, is weakly induced by 4 ng/ml bortezomib, and more strongly induced by 40 ng/ml bortezomib. In wild type animals, only exposure to 40 ng/ml bortezomib causes increased levels of UB(G76V)::GFP accumulation. In skn-1a(mg570) mutant animals, exposure to 2 or 4 ng/ml causes increased accumulation of UB(G76V)::GFP. Scale bar shows 100 μm.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.44425.011
Figure 4 with 2 supplements
SKN-1A ameliorates age-dependent toxicity of misfolded proteins.

Analysis of locomotion of (a) wild type and skn-1a(mg570) mutant animals, (b) unc-54(mg519) and unc-54(mg519); skn-1a(mg570) double mutant animals and (c) unc-54(e1301) and unc-54(e1301); skn-1a(mg570) double mutant animals during aging. (d) Age-dependent paralysis of wild type and skn-1a(mg570) mutant Aβ expressing animals. Panels b, c, d: ****p<0.0001; ***p<0.001; **p<0.01; *p<0.05; ns p>0.05 indicates P-value compared to the skn-1a(+) control at each time point (two-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s multiple comparisons test). (e) increased paralysis of Aβ expressing with defective SKN-1A activation. (f) reduced paralysis of Aβ expressing animals with increased SKN-1A levels. Panels e and f: ****p<0.0001 compared to wild type (one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparisons test). (g) Fluorescence images showing increased accumulation of Aβ::GFP in day two adults in skn-1a(mg570) as compared to wild type. (h) Quantification of Aβ::GFP puncta in wild type and skn-1a(mg570). ****p<0.0001 (Welch’s t-test).

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.44425.012
Figure 4—figure supplement 1
Activation of rpt-3p::gfp in unc-54ts mutants is not increased during aging.

Quantification of rpt-3p::gfp expression in (a) unc-54(mg519) and (b) unc-54(e1301) animals on day 1 and day 5 of adulthood. ns p>0.05 (Welch’s t-test).

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.44425.013
Figure 4—figure supplement 2
The effect of SKN-1A on locomotion of unc-54ts mutants on day 1 of adulthood.

(a) Analysis of locomotion of (a) unc-54(mg519) and unc-54(mg519); skn-1a(mg570) double mutant animals and (b) unc-54(e1301) and unc-54(e1301); skn-1a(mg570) double mutant animals on day 1 of adulthood. ***p<0.001, **p<0.01 (Welch’s t-test).

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.44425.014
SKN-1A and PNG-1 control lifespan.

(a–f) Experiments showing that SKN-1A and PNG-1 control lifespan, and that SKN-1A accounts for the effect of skn-1a/c mutations on normal lifespan: (a) The lifespan of skn-1a(mg570) mutant animals is reduced compared to the wild type. (b) The lifespan of skn-1a/c(zu67) mutant animals is not further reduced compared to skn-1a(mg570). (c) The reduced lifespan of skn-1a/c(zu67) mutant animals is rescued by a transgene expressing SKN-1A under control of the rpl-28 promoter. (d) Overexpression of SKN-1A increases lifespan. In five independent rpl-28p::skn-1a::gfp lines we found a 10–20% increase in lifespan compared to the wild type. (e) The lifespan of png-1(ok1654) mutant animals is reduced compared to wild type. (f) Removal of SKN-1A does not further reduce the lifespan of png-1(ok1654) mutant animals. For summary of lifespan statistics see Supplementary file 1 (g) Analysis of vulval degeneration in day 7 adults. ***p<0.001; **p<0.01; ns p>0.05; P-value compared to wild type control is shown unless otherwise indicated (one-way ANOVA with Sidak’s multiple comparisons test).

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.44425.015
SKN-1A modulates functional decline during aging by adjusting proteasome capacity to meet demand for degradation of misfolded proteins.

During aging, misfolded proteins eventually accumulate to levels that disrupt cellular function. SKN-1A adjusts proteasome capacity to meet demand for degradation of damaged and misfolded proteins. This modulates the age-dependent accumulation and toxicity of misfolded proteins, thereby altering the rate of functional decline during aging. In animals lacking this pathway (i.e. skn-1a or png-1 mutants), insufficient proteasome capacity leads to a rapid decline and reduced lifespan. Conversely, enhancement of this pathway (by increasing SKN-1A levels or activity) delays the cellular dysfunction caused by misfolded proteins and extends lifespan.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.44425.016

Tables

Table 1
Protesome subunit mutants.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.44425.002
genotypeallele effectViability at 20ºCViability
at 25ºC
rpt-3p::gfp induction on skn-1(RNAi)growth on skn-1(RNAi)
wild type+YesYes+
pas-1(mg511)G82RYesNo (Ste)lostLva
pbs-2(mg581)C90YYesYeslostLva
pbs-2(mg538)G93EYesYeslostLva
pbs-2(mg530)D97NYesNDlostLva
pbs-3(mg527)S180LYesYeslostLva
pbs-4(mg539)M48KYesNo (Emb/Lva)lostLva
pbs-5(mg509)3'UTRYesYeslostLva
pbs-5(mg502)promoter*YesYeslost*+*
rpt-6(mg513)I302N, P328SYesYeslostLva
rpt-6(mg512)E278KYesNo (Ste)lostLva
rpn-1(mg514)S519FYesNo (Ste)lostLva
rpn-1(mg537)G431EYesNo (Ste)lostLva
rpn-5(mg534)T76IYesNo (Emb/Lva)lostLva
rpn-8(mg587)G73RYesNo (Ste)lostLva
rpn-8(mg536)A88VYesNo (Ste)lostLva
rpn-9(mg533)G357STOPYesNo (Emb/Lva)lostLva
rpn-10(mg525)G114EYesNo (Ste)lostLva
rpn-10(mg495)K130STOPYesNo (Ste)lostLva
rpn-10(mg531)FrameshiftYesNDlostLva
rpn-10(mg529)Q298STOPYesNDlostLva
rpn-11(mg494)E108KYesNo (Ste)lostLva
  1. ND: Not determined

    * Lehrbach and Ruvkun, 2016

Key resources table
Reagent type
(species) or
resource
DesignationSource or referenceIdentifiersAdditional
information
Strain,
strain
background
(E. coli)
E. coli OP50CGCOP50
Strain, strain background (E. coli)E. coli HT115CGCHT115
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
unc-54(e1301) I.CGCCB1301
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
dvIs2CGCCL2006unc-54::Aβ
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
dvIs37CGCCL2331myo-3::gfp::Aβ
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
mgIs72 IILehrbach and Ruvkun, 2016GR2183rpt-3::gfp integrated array
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
pbs-5(mg502) I; mgIs72 IILehrbach and Ruvkun, 2016GR2184proteasome mutant
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
mgIs72 II; skn-1(mg570) IVLehrbach and Ruvkun, 2016GR2197
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
mgIs72 II; ddi-1(mg571) IVLehrbach and Ruvkun, 2016GR2211
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
unc-119(ed3) III; mgTi4Lehrbach and Ruvkun, 2016GR2212rpl-28::ha::skn-1a::gfp::tbb-2
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
unc-119(ed3) III; mgTi5Lehrbach and Ruvkun, 2016GR2213rpl-28::ha::skn-1a::gfp::tbb-2
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
mgIs72 II; sel-1(mg547) VLehrbach and Ruvkun, 2016GR2215Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)unc-119(ed3) III;
skn-1(zu67) IV; mgTi1
Lehrbach and Ruvkun, 2016GR2221rpl-28::skn-1a::GFP::tbb-2 rescues skn-1(zu67)
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
png-1(ok1654) I; mgIs72 IILehrbach and Ruvkun, 2016GR2236
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
skn-1(mg570) IVLehrbach and Ruvkun, 2016GR2245
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
png-1(ok1654) ICGCGR2246
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
png-1(ok1654) I;
skn-1(mg570) IV
this studyGR3089Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
mgIs77 Vthis studyGR3090rpl-28::ub(G76V)::gfp::tbb-2, myo-3::mcherry marker. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
unc-119(ed3) III; mgTi15this studyGR3091rpl-28::skn-1a::GFP::tbb-2.
Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
unc-119(ed3) III; mgTi17this studyGR3092rpl-28::HA::skn-1a::GFP::tbb-2. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
skn-1(mg570) IV; mgIs77 Vthis studyGR3094rpl-28::ub(G76V)::gfp::tbb-2. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
mgIs72 II; pas-1(mg511) Vthis studyGR3141proteasome mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
rpn-10(mg525) I; mgIs72 IIthis studyGR3142proteasome mutant.
Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
mgIs72 II; rpn-1(mg514) IVthis studyGR3143proteasome mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
pbs-5(mg509) I; mgIs72 IIthis studyGR3144proteasome mutant. Reagent requests:
see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
mgIs72 II; rpt-6(mg513) IIIthis studyGR3145proteasome mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
rpn-10(mg495) I; mgIs72 IIthis studyGR3146proteasome mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
mgIs72 II; rpt-6(mg512) IIIthis studyGR3147proteasome mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
mgIs78 IVthis studyGR3148myo-3::H2B::mcherry::SL2::pbs-5[T65A] (pNL47). Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
mgIs72 II; mgIs78 IVthis studyGR3149Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
rpn-10(mg529) I; mgIs72 IIthis studyGR3150proteasome mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
pbs-2(mg530) I; mgIs72 IIthis studyGR3151proteasome mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
rpn-10(mg531) I; mgIs72 IIthis studyGR3152proteasome mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
unc-54(e190) I; mgIs72 IIthis studyGR3153Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
mgIs78 IV; mgIs77 Vthis studyGR3154myo-3::H2B::mcherry::SL2::pbs-5[T65A] and Ub(G76V)::gfp. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
rpn-11(mg494) mgIs72 IIthis studyGR3155proteasome mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
unc-54(mg519) I; mgIs72 IIthis studyGR3156unc-54ts. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
unc-54(mg519) Ithis studyGR3157unc-54ts. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
mgIs72 II; skn-1
(mg674) mgIs78 IV
this studyGR3158mg674 causes G2STOP in SKN-1A. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
unc-54(e1157) I; mgIs72 IIthis studyGR3159unc-54ts. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
unc-54(e1301) I; mgIs72 IIthis studyGR3160unc-54ts. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
unc-54(mg528) I; mgIs72 IIthis studyGR3161unc-54ts. Reagent requests:
see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
unc-54(mg540) I; mgIs72 IIthis studyGR3162unc-54ts. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
skn-1(mg674) mgIs78 IVthis studyGR3163mg674 causes G2STOP
in SKN-1A. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
unc-54(e1301) I; mgIs72 II;
skn-1(mg570) IV
this studyGR3164Reagent requests: see Materials and methods.
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
unc-54(e1301) I; skn-1(mg570) IVthis studyGR3165Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
unc-54(mg519) I; mgIs72 II;
skn-1(mg570) IV
this studyGR3166Reagent requests:
see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
unc-54(mg519) I; skn-1(mg570) IVthis studyGR3167Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
skn-1(mg674) mgIs78/nT1[qIs51] IV; mgIs77/nT1[qIs51] Vthis studyGR3168skn-1(mg674) mgIs78; mgIs77 animals are very sick, use balancer to maintain. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
unc-54(e1301) I; skn-1
(mg570) IV; mgIs77 V
this studyGR3169Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
unc-54(mg519) I; skn-1
(mg570) IV; mgIs77 V
this studyGR3170Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
pbs-3(mg527) mgIs72 IIthis studyGR3171proteasome mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
pbs-2(mg581) I; mgIs72 IIthis studyGR3172proteasome mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
rpn-9(mg533) mgIs72 IIthis studyGR3173proteasome mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
rpn-8(mg587) I; mgIs72 IIthis studyGR3174proteasome mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
rpn-5(mg534) mgIs72 IIthis studyGR3175proteasome mutant.
Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
rpn-8(mg536) I; mgIs72 IIthis studyGR3176proteasome mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
mgIs72 Il; rpn-1(mg537) IVthis studyGR3177proteasome mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
pbs-2(mg538) I; mgIs72 IIthis studyGR3178proteasome mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
pbs-4(mg539) I; mgIs72 IIthis studyGR3179proteasome mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
mgIs72 II; dvIs2this studyGR3180Amyloid beta + rpt-3::gfp. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
mgIs72 II; dvIs2; skn-1(mg570) IVthis studyGR3181Amyloid beta + rpt-3::gfp in skn-1a mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
skn-1(mg570) IV; mgIs77 V; dvIs2this studyGR3182unc-54::Aβ+Ub(G76V)::
gfp in skn-1a mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
mgIs77 V; dvIs2this studyGR3183unc-54::Aβ+Ub(G76V)::gfp.
Reagent requests: s
ee Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
skn-1(mg570) IV; dvIs2this studyGR3184unc-54::Aβ in skn-1a mutant.
Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
 strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
skn-1(mg570) IV; dvIs37this studyGR3185myo-3::gfp::Aβ in skn-1a mutant.
Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
png-1(ok1654) I; dvIs2this studyGR3186unc-54::Aβ in a png-1 mutant.
Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
png-1(ok1654) I;
skn-1(mg570) IV; dvIs2
this studyGR3187unc-54::Aβ in png-1 skn-1a double mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
mgIs72 II; ddi-1(mg571) IV; dvIs2this studyGR3188unc-54::Aβ in ddi-1 mutant + rpt-3::gfp. Reagent requests:
see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
png-1(ok1645) I; mgIs72 II; dvIs2this studyGR3189unc-54::Aβ in png-1 mutant + rpt-3::gfp.
Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
dvIs2; mgEx813this studyGR3190skn-1a overexpression (pNL214), array marked by myo-2::mcherry. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
dvIs2; mgEx814this studyGR3191skn-1a overexpression (pNL214), array marked by myo-2::mcherry. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
dvIs2; mgEx815this studyGR3192skn-1a overexpression (pNL214), array marked by
myo-2::mcherry. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
mgIs72 II; sel-1(mg547) V; dvIs2this studyGR3193unc-54::Aβ in sel-1 mutant + rpt-3::gfp. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
hsf-1(sy441) I; mgIs72this studyGR3291rpt-3::gfp, hif-1 mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
unc-119(ed3) III; mgEx831this studyGR3292rpl-28p::skn-1a[∆DBD]::
gfp marked by myo-2::mcherry and unc-119(+). Reagent requests: s
ee Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
unc-54(e1301) I; mgEx831this studyGR3293rpl-28p::skn-1a[∆DBD]::gfp, unc-54ts mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
unc-54(mg519) I; mgEx831this studyGR3294rpl-28p::skn-1a[∆DBD]::gfp, unc-54ts mutant. Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
hsf-1(sy441) I; mgIs72;
skn-1a(mg570)
this studyGR3295rpt-3::gfp, hif-1, skn-1a double mutant. Reagent requests: see
Materials and methods
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
skn-1(zu67) IV/nT1
[unc-?(n754) let-?](IV;V)
CGCEU1
Strain, strain
background (C. elegans)
wild typeCGCN2
Recombinant
DNA reagent (plasmid)
rpl-28::skn-1a::tbb-2Lehrbach and Ruvkun, 2016.pNL214Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Recombinant
DNA reagent (plasmid)
myo-3::mcherry::his-58::
SL2::pbs-5[T65A]
this studypNL47Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Recombinant
DNA reagent (plasmid)
rpl-28::ub(G76V)::gfp::tbb-2this studypNL121Reagent requests: see Materials and methods
Chemical
compound, drug
BortezomibL C LaboratoriesCat#B1408
Software, algorithmImageJNIHhttps://imagej.nih.gov/ij/
Software, algorithmZenZeisshttps://www.zeiss.com/microscopy/us/products/microscope-software/zen.html
Software, algorithmApe (A plasmid editor)M Wayne Davishttp://jorgensen.biology.utah.edu/wayned/ape/
Software, algorithmGraphpad PrismGraphpadhttps://www.graphpad.com/scientific-software/prism/

Additional files

Supplementary file 1

Lifespan data and statistics.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.44425.017

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