Chromosomal DNA elements are organized into spatial domains within the eukaryotic nucleus. Sites undergoing DNA replication, high-level transcription, and repair of double-strand breaks coalesce into foci, although the significance and mechanisms giving rise to these dynamic structures are poorly understood. In S. cerevisiae, replication origins occupy characteristic subnuclear localizations that anticipate their initiation timing during S phase. Here, we link localization of replication origins in G1 phase with Fkh1 activity, which is required for their early replication timing. Using a Fkh1-dependent origin relocalization assay, we determine that execution of Dbf4-dependent kinase function, including Cdc45 loading, results in dynamic relocalization of a replication origin from the nuclear periphery to the interior in G1 phase. Origin mobility increases substantially with Fkh1-driven relocalization. These findings provide novel molecular insight into the mechanisms that govern dynamics and spatial organization of DNA replication origins and possibly other functional DNA elements.
Imaging quantification, statistical analysis, sequencing data and MatLab scripts have been deposited in Dryad.
Data from: Dynamic relocalization of replication origins by Fkh1 requires execution of DDK function and Cdc45 loading at origins in S. cerevisiaeDryad Digital Repository, doi:10.5061/dryad.7bm444s.
- Oscar M Aparicio
- Irene E Chiolo
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Bruce Stillman, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, United States
© 2019, Zhang et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The cohesin complex plays essential roles in chromosome segregation, 3D genome organisation, and DNA damage repair through its ability to modify DNA topology. In higher eukaryotes, meiotic chromosome function, and therefore fertility, requires cohesin complexes containing meiosis-specific kleisin subunits: REC8 and RAD21L in mammals and REC-8 and COH-3/4 in Caenorhabditis elegans. How these complexes perform the multiple functions of cohesin during meiosis and whether this involves different modes of DNA binding or dynamic association with chromosomes is poorly understood. Combining time-resolved methods of protein removal with live imaging and exploiting the temporospatial organisation of the C. elegans germline, we show that REC-8 complexes provide sister chromatid cohesion (SCC) and DNA repair, while COH-3/4 complexes control higher-order chromosome structure. High-abundance COH-3/4 complexes associate dynamically with individual chromatids in a manner dependent on cohesin loading (SCC-2) and removal (WAPL-1) factors. In contrast, low-abundance REC-8 complexes associate stably with chromosomes, tethering sister chromatids from S-phase until the meiotic divisions. Our results reveal that kleisin identity determines the function of meiotic cohesin by controlling the mode and regulation of cohesin–DNA association, and are consistent with a model in which SCC and DNA looping are performed by variant cohesin complexes that coexist on chromosomes.
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