In plant cells, the kinases ATM and ATR are activated by different types of DNA damage. These enzymes go on to phosphorylate and activate the SOG1 transcription factor, which then binds to and switches on its target genes. These include (i) genes involved in DNA repair through homologous recombination (HR); (ii) the genes for ANAC044 and ANAC085, the newly identified transcription factors that help to stop the cell cycle; (iii) genes that trigger a cell death program (for when damage is too severe). ANAC044 and ANAC085 work by increasing the levels of Rep-MYB transcription factors. If stabilized, these proteins maintain the cells in the phase just before division (G2/M arrest) by binding to and repressing the genes essential for cell division to proceed. It is still unclear how Rep-MYBs are stabilized, or how SOG1 and ANAC044/ANAC085 may trigger cell death (Takahashi et al., 2019).