Sensory hair cells in the ear utilize specialized ribbon synapses. These synapses are defined by electron-dense presynaptic structures called ribbons, composed primarily of the structural protein Ribeye. Previous work has shown that voltage-gated influx of Ca2+ through CaV1.3 channels is critical for hair-cell synapse function and can impede ribbon formation. We show that in mature zebrafish hair cells, evoked presynaptic-Ca2+ influx through CaV1.3 channels initiates mitochondrial-Ca2+ (mito-Ca2+) uptake adjacent to ribbons. Block of mito-Ca2+ uptake in mature cells depresses presynaptic Ca2+ influx and impacts synapse integrity. In developing zebrafish hair cells, mito-Ca2+ uptake coincides with spontaneous rises in presynaptic Ca2+ influx. Spontaneous mito-Ca2+ loading lowers cellular NAD+/NADH redox and downregulates ribbon size. Direct application of NAD+ or NADH increases or decreases ribbon size respectively, possibly acting through the NAD(H)-binding domain on Ribeye. Our results present a mechanism where presynaptic- and mito-Ca2+ couple to confer proper presynaptic function and formation.
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- Hiu-tung C Wong
- Qiuxiang Zhang
- Alisha J Beirl
- Katie Kindt
- Ronald S Petralia
- Ya-Xian Wang
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All husbandry and experiments were approved by the NIH Animal Care and Use program under protocol #1362-13.
- Tanya T Whitfield, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
How cellular metabolic state impacts cellular programs is a fundamental, unresolved question. Here we investigated how glycolytic flux impacts embryonic development, using presomitic mesoderm (PSM) patterning as the experimental model. First, we identified fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) as an in vivo sentinel metabolite that mirrors glycolytic flux within PSM cells of post-implantation mouse embryos. We found that medium-supplementation with FBP, but not with other glycolytic metabolites, such as fructose 6-phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate, impaired mesoderm segmentation. To genetically manipulate glycolytic flux and FBP levels, we generated a mouse model enabling the conditional overexpression of dominant active, cytoplasmic PFKFB3 (cytoPFKFB3). Overexpression of cytoPFKFB3 indeed led to increased glycolytic flux/FBP levels and caused an impairment of mesoderm segmentation, paralleled by the downregulation of Wnt-signaling, reminiscent of the effects seen upon FBP-supplementation. To probe for mechanisms underlying glycolytic flux-signaling, we performed subcellular proteome analysis and revealed that cytoPFKFB3 overexpression altered subcellular localization of certain proteins, including glycolytic enzymes, in PSM cells. Specifically, we revealed that FBP supplementation caused depletion of Pfkl and Aldoa from the nuclear-soluble fraction. Combined, we propose that FBP functions as a flux-signaling metabolite connecting glycolysis and PSM patterning, potentially through modulating subcellular protein localization.
The larynx enables speech while regulating swallowing and respiration. Larynx function hinges on the laryngeal epithelium which originates as part of the anterior foregut and undergoes extensive remodeling to separate from the esophagus and form vocal folds that interface with the adjacent trachea. Here we find that sonic hedgehog (SHH) is essential for epithelial integrity in the mouse larynx as well as the anterior foregut. During larynx-esophageal separation, low Shh expression marks specific domains of actively remodeling epithelium that undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) characterized by the induction of N-Cadherin and movement of cells out of the epithelial layer. Consistent with a role for SHH signaling in regulating this process, Shh mutants undergo an abnormal EMT throughout the anterior foregut and larynx, marked by a cadherin switch, movement out of the epithelial layer and cell death. Unexpectedly, Shh mutant epithelial cells are replaced by a new population of FOXA2-negative cells that likely derive from adjacent pouch tissues and form a rudimentary epithelium. These findings have important implications for interpreting the etiology of HH-dependent birth defects within the foregut. We propose that SHH signaling has a default role in maintaining epithelial identity throughout the anterior foregut and that regionalized reductions in SHH trigger epithelial remodeling.