Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) antagonistically modulate metabolism and aging. However, how they coordinate to determine longevity and if they act via separable mechanisms is unclear. Here, we show that neuronal AMPK is essential for lifespan extension from TORC1 inhibition, and that TORC1 suppression increases lifespan cell non autonomously via distinct mechanisms from global AMPK activation. Lifespan extension by null mutations in genes encoding raga-1 (RagA) or rsks-1 (S6K) is fully suppressed by neuronal-specific rescues. Loss of RAGA-1 increases lifespan via maintaining mitochondrial fusion. Neuronal RAGA-1 abrogation of raga-1 mutant longevity requires UNC-64/syntaxin, and promotes mitochondrial fission cell nonautonomously. Finally, deleting the mitochondrial fission factor DRP-1 renders the animal refractory to the pro-aging effects of neuronal RAGA-1. Our results highlight a new role for neuronal TORC1 in cell nonautonomous regulation of longevity, and suggest TORC1 in the central nervous system might be targeted to promote healthy aging.
Sequencing data have been deposited in GEO under accession code GSE132794
RNA seq of raga-1 neuronal rescue C. elegansNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE132794.
- William Mair
- William Mair
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Matt Kaeberlein, University of Washington, United States
© 2019, Zhang et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Although most species have two sexes, multisexual (or multi-mating type) species are also widespread. However, it is unclear how mating-type recognition is achieved at the molecular level in multisexual species. The unicellular ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila has seven mating types, which are determined by the MTA and MTB proteins. In this study, we found that both proteins are essential for cells to send or receive complete mating-type information, and transmission of the mating-type signal requires both proteins to be expressed in the same cell. We found that MTA and MTB form a mating-type recognition complex that localizes to the plasma membrane, but not to the cilia. Stimulation experiments showed that the mating-type-specific regions of MTA and MTB mediate both self- and non-self-recognition, indicating that T. thermophila uses a dual approach to achieve mating-type recognition. Our results suggest that MTA and MTB form an elaborate multifunctional protein complex that can identify cells of both self and non-self mating types in order to inhibit or activate mating, respectively.
Transposable elements (TEs) are major contributors to structural genomic variation by creating interspersed duplications of themselves. In return, structural variants (SVs) can affect the genomic distribution of TE copies and shape their load. One long-standing hypothesis states that hybridization could trigger TE mobilization and thus increase TE load in hybrids. We previously tested this hypothesis (Hénault et al., 2020) by performing a large-scale evolution experiment by mutation accumulation (MA) on multiple hybrid genotypes within and between wild populations of the yeasts Saccharomyces paradoxus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using aggregate measures of TE load with short-read sequencing, we found no evidence for TE load increase in hybrid MA lines. Here, we resolve the genomes of the hybrid MA lines with long-read phasing and assembly to precisely characterize the role of SVs in shaping the TE landscape. Highly contiguous phased assemblies of 127 MA lines revealed that SV types like polyploidy, aneuploidy, and loss of heterozygosity have large impacts on the TE load. We characterized 18 de novo TE insertions, indicating that transposition only has a minor role in shaping the TE landscape in MA lines. Because the scarcity of TE mobilization in MA lines provided insufficient resolution to confidently dissect transposition rate variation in hybrids, we adapted an in vivo assay to measure transposition rates in various S. paradoxus hybrid backgrounds. We found that transposition rates are not increased by hybridization, but are modulated by many genotype-specific factors including initial TE load, TE sequence variants, and mitochondrial DNA inheritance. Our results show the multiple scales at which TE load is shaped in hybrid genomes, being highly impacted by SV dynamics and finely modulated by genotype-specific variation in transposition rates.