Is vision necessary for the development of the categorical organization of the Ventral Occipito-Temporal Cortex (VOTC)? We used fMRI to characterize VOTC responses to eight categories presented acoustically in sighted and early blind individuals, and visually in a separate sighted group. We observed that VOTC reliably encodes sound categories in sighted and blind people using a representational structure and connectivity partially similar to the one found in vision. Sound categories were, however, more reliably encoded in the blind than the sighted group, using a representational format closer to the one found in vision. Crucially, VOTC in blind represents the categorical membership of sounds rather than their acoustic features. Our results suggest that sounds trigger categorical responses in the VOTC of congenitally blind and sighted people that partially match the topography and functional profile of the visual response, despite qualitative nuances in the categorical organization of VOTC between modalities and groups.
Processed data have been made available on OSF at the link https://osf.io/erdxz/. To preserve participant anonymity and due to restrictions on data sharing in our ethical approval, fully anonymised raw data can only be shared upon request to the corresponding author.
Categorical representation from sound and sight in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex of sighted and blind - open dataOpen Science Framework, erdxz.
- Olivier Collignon
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Human subjects: The ethical committee of the University of Trento approved this study (protocol 2014-007) and participants gave their informed consent before participation.
- Tamar R Makin, University College London, United Kingdom
© 2020, Mattioni et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Decisions about noisy stimuli are widely understood to be made by accumulating evidence up to a decision bound that can be adjusted according to task demands. However, relatively little is known about how such mechanisms operate in continuous monitoring contexts requiring intermittent target detection. Here, we examined neural decision processes underlying detection of 1 s coherence targets within continuous random dot motion, and how they are adjusted across contexts with weak, strong, or randomly mixed weak/strong targets. Our prediction was that decision bounds would be set lower when weak targets are more prevalent. Behavioural hit and false alarm rate patterns were consistent with this, and were well captured by a bound-adjustable leaky accumulator model. However, beta-band EEG signatures of motor preparation contradicted this, instead indicating lower bounds in the strong-target context. We thus tested two alternative models in which decision-bound dynamics were constrained directly by beta measurements, respectively, featuring leaky accumulation with adjustable leak, and non-leaky accumulation of evidence referenced to an adjustable sensory-level criterion. We found that the latter model best explained both behaviour and neural dynamics, highlighting novel means of decision policy regulation and the value of neurally informed modelling.
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). A hallmark of ALS/FTD pathology is the presence of dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins, produced from both sense GGGGCC (poly-GA, poly-GP, poly-GR) and antisense CCCCGG (poly-PR, poly-PG, poly-PA) transcripts. Translation of sense DPRs, such as poly-GA and poly-GR, depends on non-canonical (non-AUG) initiation codons. Here, we provide evidence for canonical AUG-dependent translation of two antisense DPRs, poly-PR and poly-PG. A single AUG is required for synthesis of poly-PR, one of the most toxic DPRs. Unexpectedly, we found redundancy between three AUG codons necessary for poly-PG translation. Further, the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2D (EIF2D), which was previously implicated in sense DPR synthesis, is not required for AUG-dependent poly-PR or poly-PG translation, suggesting that distinct translation initiation factors control DPR synthesis from sense and antisense transcripts. Our findings on DPR synthesis from the C9ORF72 locus may be broadly applicable to many other nucleotide repeat expansion disorders.