1. Epidemiology and Global Health
  2. Medicine
Download icon

Estimates of the global burden of Japanese Encephalitis and the impact of vaccination from 2000-2015

  1. Tran Minh Quan
  2. Tran Thi Nhu Thao
  3. Nguyen Manh Duy
  4. Tran Minh Nhat
  5. Hannah Clapham  Is a corresponding author
  1. University of Notre Dame, United States
  2. Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Asia Program, Viet Nam
Research Article
  • Cited 10
  • Views 1,186
  • Annotations
Cite this article as: eLife 2020;9:e51027 doi: 10.7554/eLife.51027

Abstract

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne disease, known for its high mortality and disability rate among symptomatic cases. Many effective vaccines are available for JE, and the use of a recently developed and inexpensive vaccine, SA 14-14-2, has been increasing over the recent years particularly with Gavi support. Estimates of the local burden and the past impact of vaccination are therefore increasingly needed, but difficult due to the limitations of JE surveillance. In this study, we implemented a mathematical modelling method (catalytic model) combined with age-stratifed case data from our systematic review which can overcome some of these limitations. We estimate in 2015 JEV infections caused 100,308 JE cases (95%CI: 61,720 - 157,522) and 25,125 deaths (95%CI: 14,550 - 46,031) globally, and that between 2000 and 2015 307,774 JE cases (95%CI: 167,442- 509,583) were averted due to vaccination globally. Our results highlight areas that could have the greatest benefit from starting vaccination or from scaling up existing programs and will be of use to support local and international policymakers in making vaccine allocation decisions.

Data availability

This study conducted a literature review and collated all data on age-stratified JE cases from these papers. The full list of these papers and the data extracted is available in the supplement.The code and data is available here: https://github.com/tranquanc123/JE_burden_estimates.

Article and author information

Author details

  1. Tran Minh Quan

    Biological Science Department, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0003-3337-161X
  2. Tran Thi Nhu Thao

    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Asia Program, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  3. Nguyen Manh Duy

    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Asia Program, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  4. Tran Minh Nhat

    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Asia Program, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0002-9500-8341
  5. Hannah Clapham

    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Asia Program, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
    For correspondence
    hannah.clapham@nus.edu.sg
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0002-2531-161X

Funding

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and Gavi (Vaccine Impact Modelling Consortium)

  • Tran Minh Quan
  • Tran Thi Nhu Thao
  • Nguyen Manh Duy
  • Tran Minh Nhat

Wellcome Trust (089276/B/09/7)

  • Hannah Clapham

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.

Reviewing Editor

  1. Eduardo Franco, McGill University, Canada

Publication history

  1. Received: August 12, 2019
  2. Accepted: May 17, 2020
  3. Accepted Manuscript published: May 26, 2020 (version 1)
  4. Version of Record published: June 9, 2020 (version 2)

Copyright

© 2020, Quan et al.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.

Metrics

  • 1,186
    Page views
  • 159
    Downloads
  • 10
    Citations

Article citation count generated by polling the highest count across the following sources: Crossref, PubMed Central, Scopus.

Download links

A two-part list of links to download the article, or parts of the article, in various formats.

Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)

Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)

Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)

Further reading

    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Genetics and Genomics
    Mohd Anisul et al.
    Research Article Updated

    Background:

    The virus SARS-CoV-2 can exploit biological vulnerabilities (e.g. host proteins) in susceptible hosts that predispose to the development of severe COVID-19.

    Methods:

    To identify host proteins that may contribute to the risk of severe COVID-19, we undertook proteome-wide genetic colocalisation tests, and polygenic (pan) and cis-Mendelian randomisation analyses leveraging publicly available protein and COVID-19 datasets.

    Results:

    Our analytic approach identified several known targets (e.g. ABO, OAS1), but also nominated new proteins such as soluble Fas (colocalisation probability >0.9, p=1 × 10-4), implicating Fas-mediated apoptosis as a potential target for COVID-19 risk. The polygenic (pan) and cis-Mendelian randomisation analyses showed consistent associations of genetically predicted ABO protein with several COVID-19 phenotypes. The ABO signal is highly pleiotropic, and a look-up of proteins associated with the ABO signal revealed that the strongest association was with soluble CD209. We demonstrated experimentally that CD209 directly interacts with the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, suggesting a mechanism that could explain the ABO association with COVID-19.

    Conclusions:

    Our work provides a prioritised list of host targets potentially exploited by SARS-CoV-2 and is a precursor for further research on CD209 and FAS as therapeutically tractable targets for COVID-19.

    Funding:

    MAK, JSc, JH, AB, DO, MC, EMM, MG, ID were funded by Open Targets. J.Z. and T.R.G were funded by the UK Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit (MC_UU_00011/4). JSh and GJW were funded by the Wellcome Trust Grant 206194. This research was funded in part by the Wellcome Trust [Grant 206194]. For the purpose of open access, the author has applied a CC BY public copyright licence to any Author Accepted Manuscript version arising from this submission.

    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    Lawrence Lubyayi et al.
    Research Article

    Background:

    Lack of early infection-exposure has been associated with increased allergy-related disease (ARD) susceptibility. In tropical Africa, little is known about which infections contribute to development of ARDs, and at which time.

    Methods:

    We used latent class analysis to characterise the early infection-exposure of participants in a Ugandan birth cohort and assessed ARDs in later childhood.

    Results:

    Of 2345 live births, 2115 children (90%) had data on infections within the first year of life while 1179 (50%) had outcome data at 9 years. We identified two latent classes of children based on first-year infection-exposure. Class 1 (32% membership), characterised by higher probabilities for malaria (80%), diarrhoea (76%), and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) (22%), was associated with lower prevalence of wheeze, eczema, rhinitis, and Dermatophagoides skin prick test (SPT) positivity at 9 years. Based on 5-year cumulative infection experience, class 1 (31% membership), characterised by higher probabilities for helminths (92%), malaria (79%), and LRTI (45%), was associated with lower probabilities of SPT positivity at 9 years.

    Conclusions:

    In this Ugandan birth cohort, early childhood infection-exposure, notably to malaria, helminths, LRTI, and diarrhoea, is associated with lower prevalence of atopy and ARDs in later childhood.

    Funding:

    This work was supported by several funding sources. The Entebbe Mother and Baby Study (EMaBS) was supported by the Wellcome Trust, UK, senior fellowships for AME (grant numbers 064693, 079110, 95778) with additional support from the UK Medical Research Council. LL is supported by a PhD fellowship through the DELTAS Africa Initiative SSACAB (grant number 107754). ELW received funding from MRC Grant Reference MR/K012126/1. SAL was supported by the PANDORA-ID-NET Consortium (EDCTP Reg/Grant RIA2016E-1609). HM was supported by the Wellcome’s Institutional Strategic Support Fund (grant number 204928/Z/16/Z).