The vertebral skeleton is a defining feature of vertebrate animals. However, the mode of vertebral segmentation varies considerably between major lineages. In tetrapods, adjacent somite halves recombine to form a single vertebra through the process of 'resegmentation'. In teleost fishes, there is considerable mixing between cells of the anterior and posterior somite halves, without clear resegmentation. To determine whether resegmentation is a tetrapod novelty, or an ancestral feature of jawed vertebrates, we tested the relationship between somites and vertebrae in a cartilaginous fish, the skate (Leucoraja erinacea). Using cell lineage tracing, we show that skate trunk vertebrae arise through tetrapod-like resegmentation, with anterior and posterior halves of each vertebra deriving from adjacent somites. We further show that tail vertebrae also arise through resegmentation, though with a duplication of the number of vertebrae per body segment. These findings resolve axial resegmentation as an ancestral feature of the jawed vertebrate body plan.
- Katharine E Criswell
- Andrew Gillis
- Katharine E Criswell
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All experimental work was conducted at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA, in accordance with approved institutional animal care and use (IACUC) protocols (#17-31 and #18-32). All embryological manipulations and euthanasia were performed with use of the anaesthetic Ethyl 3-aminobenzoate methanesulfonate (MS-222 or tricaine) and all efforts were made to minimise suffering.
- Pamela C Yelick, Tufts University, United States
© 2020, Criswell & Gillis
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)
Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)
Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)
Proper positioning of cells is essential for many aspects of development. Daughter cell positions can be specified via orienting the cell division axis during cytokinesis. Rotatory actomyosin flows during division have been implied in specifying and reorienting the cell division axis, but how general such reorientation events are, and how they are controlled, remains unclear. We followed the first nine divisions of Caenorhabditis elegans embryo development and demonstrate that chiral counter-rotating flows arise systematically in early AB lineage, but not in early P/EMS lineage cell divisions. Combining our experiments with thin film active chiral fluid theory we identify a mechanism by which chiral counter-rotating actomyosin flows arise in the AB lineage only, and show that they drive lineage-specific spindle skew and cell reorientation events. In conclusion, our work sheds light on the physical processes that underlie chiral morphogenesis in early development.
During endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), the cytoplasmic enzyme N-glycanase 1 (NGLY1) is proposed to remove N-glycans from misfolded N-glycoproteins after their retrotranslocation from the ER to the cytosol. We previously reported that NGLY1 regulates Drosophila BMP signaling in a tissue-specific manner (Galeone et al., 2017). Here, we establish the Drosophila Dpp and its mouse ortholog BMP4 as biologically relevant targets of NGLY1 and find, unexpectedly, that NGLY1-mediated deglycosylation of misfolded BMP4 is required for its retrotranslocation. Accumulation of misfolded BMP4 in the ER results in ER stress and prompts the ER recruitment of NGLY1. The ER-associated NGLY1 then deglycosylates misfolded BMP4 molecules to promote their retrotranslocation and proteasomal degradation, thereby allowing properly-folded BMP4 molecules to proceed through the secretory pathway and activate signaling in other cells. Our study redefines the role of NGLY1 during ERAD and suggests that impaired BMP4 signaling might underlie some of the NGLY1 deficiency patient phenotypes.