In humans, the divalent metal-ion transporter-1 (DMT1) mediates the transport of ferrous iron across the apical membrane of enterocytes. Hence, its inhibition could be beneficial for the treatment of iron overload disorders. Here we characterize the interaction of aromatic bis-isothiourea-substituted compounds with human DMT1 and its prokaryotic homologue EcoDMT. Both transporters are inhibited by a common competitive mechanism with potencies in the low micromolar range. The crystal structure of EcoDMT in complex with a brominated derivative defines the binding of the inhibitor to an extracellular pocket of the transporter in direct contact with residues of the metal ion coordination site, thereby interfering with substrate loading and locking the transporter in its outward-facing state. Mutagenesis and structure-activity relationships further support the observed interaction mode and reveal species-dependent differences between pro- and eukaryotic transporters. Together, our data provide the first detailed mechanistic insight into the pharmacology of SLC11/NRAMP transporters.
Coordinates and structure factors have been deposited with the PDB under Accession Code 6TL2
Coordinates and structure factorsProtein Data Bank, 6TL2.
- Jean-Louis Reymond
- Matthias A Hediger
- Raimund Dutzler
- Matthias A Hediger
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- László Csanády, Semmelweis University, Hungary
© 2019, Manatschal et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is an allosteric process. It involves conformational coupling between the orthosteric ligand binding site and the G protein binding site. Factors that bind at non-cognate ligand binding sites to alter the allosteric activation process are classified as allosteric modulators and represent a promising class of therapeutics with distinct modes of binding and action. For many receptors, how modulation of signaling is represented at the structural level is unclear. Here, we developed FRET sensors to quantify receptor modulation at each of the three structural domains of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2). We identified the conformational fingerprint for several allosteric modulators in live cells. This approach enabled us to derive a receptor-centric representation of allosteric modulation and to correlate structural modulation to the standard signaling modulation metrics. Single-molecule FRET analysis revealed that a NAM increases the occupancy of one of the intermediate states while a PAM increases the occupancy of the active state. Moreover, we found that the effect of allosteric modulators on the receptor dynamics is complex and depend on the orthosteric ligand. Collectively, our findings provide a structural mechanism of allosteric modulation in mGluR2 and suggest possible strategies for design of future modulators.
Cataract is one of the most prevalent protein aggregation disorders and still the most common cause of vision loss worldwide. The metabolically quiescent core region of the human lens lacks cellular or protein turnover; it has therefore evolved remarkable mechanisms to resist light-scattering protein aggregation for a lifetime. We now report that one such mechanism involves an unusually abundant lens metabolite, myo-inositol, suppressing aggregation of lens crystallins. We quantified aggregation suppression using our previously well-characterized in vitro aggregation assays of oxidation-mimicking human γD-crystallin variants and investigated myo-inositol’s molecular mechanism of action using solution NMR, negative-stain TEM, differential scanning fluorometry, thermal scanning Raman spectroscopy, turbidimetry in redox buffers, and free thiol quantitation. Unlike many known chemical chaperones, myo-inositol’s primary target was not the native, unfolded, or final aggregated states of the protein; rather, we propose that it was the rate-limiting bimolecular step on the aggregation pathway. Given recent metabolomic evidence that it is severely depleted in human cataractous lenses compared to age-matched controls, we suggest that maintaining or restoring healthy levels of myo-inositol in the lens may be a simple, safe, and globally accessible strategy to prevent or delay lens opacification due to age-onset cataract.