Dark exposure (DE) followed by light reintroduction (LRx) reactivates robust synaptic plasticity in adult mouse V1, which allows recovery from amblyopia. Previously we showed that LRx-induced perisynaptic proteolysis of extracellular matrix (ECM) by MMP9 mediates the enhanced plasticity in binocular adult mice (Murase et al., 2017). However, it is unknown if a visual system compromised by amblyopia could engage this pathway. Here we show that LRx to adult amblyopic mice induces perisynaptic MMP2/9 activity and ECM degradation in the deprived and non-deprived V1. LRx restricted to the amblyopic eye induces equally robust MMP2/9 activity at thalamo-cortical synapses and ECM degradation in deprived V1. Two-photon live imaging demonstrates that the history of visual experience regulates MMP2/9 activity in V1, and that DE lowers the threshold for the proteinase activation. The homeostatic reduction of MMP2/9 activation threshold by DE enables the visual input from the amblyopic pathway to trigger robust perisynaptic proteolysis.
All data generated/analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data files have been provided for Figures 1-5.
- Elizabeth M Quinlan
- Patrick O Kanold
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All procedures, under Quinlan lab protocol R-MAY-18-25, conformed to the guidelines of the University of Maryland Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health.
- Sacha B Nelson, Brandeis University, United States
© 2019, Murase et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Pyramidal neurons, a mainstay of cortical regions, receive a plethora of inputs from various areas onto their morphologically distinct apical and basal trees. Both trees differentially contribute to the somatic response, defining distinct anatomical and possibly functional sub-units. To elucidate the contribution of each tree to the encoding of visual stimuli at the somatic level, we modeled the response pattern of a mouse L2/3 V1 pyramidal neuron to orientation tuned synaptic input. Towards this goal, we used a morphologically detailed computational model of a single cell that replicates electrophysiological and two-photon imaging data. Our simulations predict a synergistic effect of apical and basal trees on somatic action potential generation: basal tree activity, in the form of either depolarization or dendritic spiking, is necessary for producing somatic activity, despite the fact that most somatic spikes are heavily driven by apical dendritic spikes. This model provides evidence for synergistic computations taking place in the basal and apical trees of the L2/3 V1 neuron along with mechanistic explanations for tree-specific contributions and emphasizes the potential role of predictive and attentional feedback input in these cells.
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are trimeric proton-gated sodium channels. Recent work has shown that these channels play a role in necroptosis following prolonged acidic exposure like occurs in stroke. The C-terminus of ASIC1a is thought to mediate necroptotic cell death through interaction with receptor interacting serine threonine kinase 1 (RIPK1). This interaction is hypothesized to be inhibited at rest via an interaction between the C- and N-termini which blocks the RIPK1 binding site. Here, we use two transition metal ion FRET methods to investigate the conformational dynamics of the termini at neutral and acidic pH. We do not find evidence that the termini are close enough to be bound while the channel is at rest and find that the termini may modestly move closer together during acidification. At rest, the N-terminus adopts a conformation parallel to the membrane about 10 Å away. The distal end of the C-terminus may also spend time close to the membrane at rest. After acidification, the proximal portion of the N-terminus moves marginally closer to the membrane whereas the distal portion of the C-terminus swings away from the membrane. Together these data suggest that a new hypothesis for RIPK1 binding during stroke is needed.