CAG/CTG trinuncleotide repeats are fragile sequences that when expanded form DNA secondary structures and cause human disease. We evaluated CAG/CTG repeat stability and repair outcomes in histone H2 mutants in S. cerevisiae. Although the two copies of H2A are nearly identical in amino acid sequence, CAG repeat stability depends on H2A copy 1 (H2A.1) but not copy 2 (H2A.2). H2A.1 promotes high-fidelity homologous recombination, sister chromatid recombination (SCR), and break-induced replication whereas H2A.2 does not share these functions. Both decreased SCR and the increase in CAG expansions were due to the unique Thr126 residue in H2A.1 and hta1Δ or hta1-T126A mutants were epistatic to deletion of the Polδ subunit Pol32, suggesting a role for H2A.1 in D-loop extension. We conclude that H2A.1 plays a greater repair-specific role compared to H2A.2 and may be a first step towards evolution of a repair-specific function for H2AX compared to H2A in mammalian cells.
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Catherine H Freudenreich
- Erica J Polleys
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Wolf-Dietrich Heyer, University of California, Davis, United States
© 2019, House et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
To mount a protective response to infection while preventing hyperinflammation, gene expression in innate immune cells must be tightly regulated. Despite the importance of pre-mRNA splicing in shaping the proteome, its role in balancing immune outcomes remains understudied. Transcriptomic analysis of murine macrophage cell lines identified Serine/Arginine Rich Splicing factor 6 (SRSF6) as a gatekeeper of mitochondrial homeostasis. SRSF6-dependent orchestration of mitochondrial health is directed in large part by alternative splicing of the pro-apoptosis pore-forming protein BAX. Loss of SRSF6 promotes accumulation of BAX-κ, a variant that sensitizes macrophages to undergo cell death and triggers upregulation of interferon stimulated genes through cGAS sensing of cytosolic mitochondrial DNA. Upon pathogen sensing, macrophages regulate SRSF6 expression to control the liberation of immunogenic mtDNA and adjust the threshold for entry into programmed cell death. This work defines BAX alternative splicing by SRSF6 as a critical node not only in mitochondrial homeostasis but also in the macrophage’s response to pathogens.
Asynchronous replication of chromosome domains during S phase is essential for eukaryotic genome function, but the mechanisms establishing which domains replicate early versus late in different cell types remain incompletely understood. Intercalary heterochromatin domains replicate very late in both diploid chromosomes of dividing cells and in endoreplicating polytene chromosomes where they are also underrelicated. Drosophila SNF2-related factor SUUR imparts locus-specific underreplication of polytene chromosomes. SUUR negatively regulates DNA replication fork progression; however, its mechanism of action remains obscure. Here we developed a novel method termed MS-Enabled Rapid protein Complex Identification (MERCI) to isolate a stable stoichiometric native complex SUMM4 that comprises SUUR and a chromatin boundary protein Mod(Mdg4)-67.2. Mod(Mdg4) stimulates SUUR ATPase activity and is required for a normal spatiotemporal distribution of SUUR in vivo. SUUR and Mod(Mdg4)-67.2 together mediate the activities of gypsy insulator that prevent certain enhancer-promoter interactions and establish euchromatin-heterochromatin barriers in the genome. Furthermore, SuUR or mod(mdg4) mutations reverse underreplication of intercalary heterochromatin. Thus, SUMM4 can impart late replication of intercalary heterochromatin by attenuating the progression of replication forks through euchromatin/heterochromatin boundaries. Our findings implicate a SNF2 family ATP-dependent motor protein SUUR in the insulator function, reveal that DNA replication can be delayed by a chromatin barrier and uncover a critical role for architectural proteins in replication control. They suggest a mechanism for the establishment of late replication that does not depend on an asynchronous firing of late replication origins.