The TIR1/AFB auxin co-receptors mediate diverse responses to the plant hormone auxin. The Arabidopsis genome encodes six TIR1/AFB proteins representing three of the four clades that were established prior to angiosperm radiation. To determine the role of these proteins in plant development we performed an extensive genetic analysis involving the generation and characterization of all possible multiply-mutant lines. We find that loss of all six TIR1/AFB proteins results in early embryo defects and eventually seed abortion, and yet a single wild-type allele of TIR1 or AFB2 is sufficient to support growth throughout development. Our analysis reveals extensive functional overlap between even the most distantly related TIR1/AFB genes except for AFB1. Surprisingly, AFB1 has a specialized function in rapid auxin-dependent inhibition of root growth and early phase of root gravitropism. This activity may be related to a difference in subcellular localization compared to the other members of the family.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data files have been provided for Figure 1-figure supplement 2B, Figure 1-figure supplement 4, Figure 1-figure supplement 5. Figure 5-figure supplement 1, Figure 6, Figure 6-figure supplement 2 , Figure 7, Figure 7-figure supplement 1
One 1000 plant transciptomicshttps://datacommons.cyverse.org/browse/iplant/home/shared/commons_repo/curated/oneKP_capstone_2019.
- Mark Estelle
- Matthieu Platre
- Rahul Arvind Bhosale
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Jürgen Kleine-Vehn, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria
© 2020, Prigge et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Imaging experiments reveal the complex and dynamic nature of the transcriptional hubs associated with Notch signaling.
Cylicins are testis-specific proteins, which are exclusively expressed during spermiogenesis. In mice and humans, two Cylicins, the gonosomal X-linked Cylicin 1 (Cylc1/CYLC1) and the autosomal Cylicin 2 (Cylc2/CYLC2) genes, have been identified. Cylicins are cytoskeletal proteins with an overall positive charge due to lysine-rich repeats. While Cylicins have been localized in the acrosomal region of round spermatids, they resemble a major component of the calyx within the perinuclear theca at the posterior part of mature sperm nuclei. However, the role of Cylicins during spermiogenesis has not yet been investigated. Here, we applied CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in zygotes to establish Cylc1- and Cylc2-deficient mouse lines as a model to study the function of these proteins. Cylc1 deficiency resulted in male subfertility, whereas Cylc2-/-, Cylc1-/yCylc2+/-, and Cylc1-/yCylc2-/- males were infertile. Phenotypical characterization revealed that loss of Cylicins prevents proper calyx assembly during spermiogenesis. This results in decreased epididymal sperm counts, impaired shedding of excess cytoplasm, and severe structural malformations, ultimately resulting in impaired sperm motility. Furthermore, exome sequencing identified an infertile man with a hemizygous variant in CYLC1 and a heterozygous variant in CYLC2, displaying morphological abnormalities of the sperm including the absence of the acrosome. Thus, our study highlights the relevance and importance of Cylicins for spermiogenic remodeling and male fertility in human and mouse, and provides the basis for further studies on unraveling the complex molecular interactions between perinuclear theca proteins required during spermiogenesis.