Neuronal degeneration in the zebrafish retina stimulates Müller glia (MG) to proliferate and generate multipotent progenitors for retinal repair. Controlling this proliferation is critical to successful regeneration. Previous studies reported that retinal injury stimulates pSmad3 signaling in injury-responsive MG. Contrary to these findings, we report pSmad3 expression is restricted to quiescent MG and suppressed in injury-responsive MG. Our data indicates that Tgfb3 is the ligand responsible for regulating pSmad3 expression. Remarkably, although overexpression of either Tgfb1b or Tgfb3 can stimulate pSmad3 expression in the injured retina, only Tgfb3 inhibits injury-dependent MG proliferation; suggesting the involvement of a non-canonical Tgfb signaling pathway. Furthermore, inhibition of Alk5, PP2A or Notch signaling rescues MG proliferation in Tgfb3 overexpressing zebrafish. Finally, we report that this Tgfb3 signaling pathway is active in zebrafish MG, but not those in mice, which may contribute to the different regenerative capabilities of MG from fish and mammals.
GEO accession for RNAseq data is GSE145330
Injury and apobec2-dependent regulation of zebrafish Muller glial cell gene expressionNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE145330.
- Daniel Goldman
- Daniel Goldman
- Daniel Goldman
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. Animal studies were approved by the University of Michigan's Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.
- Jeffrey Gross, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, United States
© 2020, Lee et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Intermittent fasting (IF) has been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in both animals and humans, and can protect the heart against ischemic injury in models of myocardial infarction. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms behind these effects remain unclear. To shed light on the molecular and cellular adaptations of the heart to IF, we conducted comprehensive system-wide analyses of the proteome, phosphoproteome, and transcriptome, followed by functional analysis. Using advanced mass spectrometry, we profiled the proteome and phosphoproteome of heart tissues obtained from mice that were maintained on daily 12- or 16 hr fasting, every-other-day fasting, or ad libitum control feeding regimens for 6 months. We also performed RNA sequencing to evaluate whether the observed molecular responses to IF occur at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels. Our analyses revealed that IF significantly affected pathways that regulate cyclic GMP signaling, lipid and amino acid metabolism, cell adhesion, cell death, and inflammation. Furthermore, we found that the impact of IF on different metabolic processes varied depending on the length of the fasting regimen. Short IF regimens showed a higher correlation of pathway alteration, while longer IF regimens had an inverse correlation of metabolic processes such as fatty acid oxidation and immune processes. Additionally, functional echocardiographic analyses demonstrated that IF enhances stress-induced cardiac performance. Our systematic multi-omics study provides a molecular framework for understanding how IF impacts the heart’s function and its vulnerability to injury and disease.
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