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Anatomy of nerve fiber bundles at micrometer-resolution in the vervet monkey visual system

  1. Hiromasa Takemura  Is a corresponding author
  2. Nicola Palomero-Gallagher  Is a corresponding author
  3. Markus Axer
  4. David Gräßel
  5. Matthew J Jorgensen
  6. Roger Woods
  7. Karl Zilles
  1. Center for Information and Neural Networks (CiNet), National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, and Osaka University, Japan
  2. Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Japan
  3. Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine INM-1, Research Centre Jülich, Germany
  4. Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen, Germany
  5. C. & O. Vogt Institute for Brain Research, Heinrich-Heine-University, Germany
  6. Department of Pathology, Section on Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, United States
  7. Ahmanson-Lovelace Brain Mapping Center, Departments of Neurology and of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, United States
  8. JARA - Translational Brain Medicine, Germany
Research Article
Cite this article as: eLife 2020;9:e55444 doi: 10.7554/eLife.55444
15 figures, 1 table, 1 data set and 1 additional file

Figures

Previous studies describing the position and trajectory of major fiber tracts in the primate visual system.

(A) The position and trajectory of the SS identified by Klingler’s dissection method in the human brain (provided by courtesy of Sabine Wittschonnke). The SS is visible as a large fiber bundle located in the medial portion of the occipital white matter and travelling through an anterior-to-posterior axis. It is difficult to identify the precise termination of SS fibers by this method. (B) Camera lucida drawing of the human ILF in the classical dissection work by Déjerine, 1895. The ILF (highlighted by red dotted lines) was described as a tract connecting occipital and inferotemporal cortex. (C) Schematic diagram of the macaque ILF based on tracer experiments (Schmahmann and Pandya, 2006). Similar to Déjerine, 1895, the ILF was described as a tract connecting occipital and inferotemporal cortex. (D) The VOF in the macaque monkey identified by dMRI (Takemura et al., 2017). Similar to a definition in classical dissection works (Yeatman et al., 2014), the VOF was identified as a tract connecting dorsal and ventral occipital cortex and located lateral to the SS.

© 2006 Oxford University Press. Figure 1C is reprinted from Schmahmann and Pandya, 2006 with permission from Oxford University Press. It is not covered by the CC-BY 4.0 licence and further reproduction of this panel would need permission from the copyright holder.

© 2017 Oxford University Press. Figure 1D is reproduced from Takemura et al., 2017, with permission from Oxford University Press. It is not covered by the CC-BY 4.0 licence and further reproduction of this panel would need permission from the copyright holder.

Medial sagittal sections through the left hemisphere of the vervet monkey brain (ID1947; A-C section #249, which is medial to D section #210) including the LGN.

(A, B, D) FOMs; (C) transmittance image. (A) Overview with fiber tract. (B-C) Detailed magnifications of the rectangle in A. The sphere (in A) indicates the color coding of 3D fiber orientation in each pixel. (D) Zone in which SS-fibers (white arrow) leave the LGN and cross with fibers running between the caudate nucleus and the putamen (black arrow). AC: anterior commissure, Cd: caudate nucleus, f: fornix/fimbria hippocampi, GPi: globus pallidus pars interna, LGN: lateral geniculate nucleus, LV: lateral ventricle, P: pulvinar, Put: putamen, SS: stratum sagittale, V1: primary visual cortex. Asterisks indicate SS fibers leaving the pulvinar.

Fiber orientation maps of sagittal sections through the left hemisphere of brain ID1947 (A section #160 lies medial to C section #157).

This series is lateral to that of Figure 2. The sphere indicates the color coding of 3D fiber orientation in each pixel. (A) Overview with fiber tract and cortical areas. (B) A magnification of the rectangle in A. (C) Fiber orientation map of the region where the VOF curves around the SS during its course between the preoccipital and inferior temporal gyri. The small whole-section image on the top left depicts magnified region as a rectangle and the site where the superior temporal gyrus was separated from the rest of the brain as a white dashed line. amts: anterior midtemporal sulcus, DP: dorsal prelunate area, FST: superior temporal area in the floor of the superior temporal sulcus, ILF: inferior longitudinal fascicle, ios: inferior occipital sulcus, lf: lateral fissure, ls: lunate sulcus, LV: lateral ventricle, MT: middle temporal area, ots: occipito-temporal sulcus, SS: stratum sagittale, sts: superior temporal sulcus, T: tapetum, TE: area TE, U: U-fibers, V1: primary visual cortex, V2d: secondary visual cortex dorsal part, V2v: secondary visual cortex ventral part, V3A: visual area V3A, V3d: visual area three dorsal part, V3v: visual area three ventral part, V4d: visual area four dorsal part, V4v: visual area four ventral part, VOF: vertical occipital fascicle. Asterisk indicates the stratum calcarinum.

Figure 4 with 1 supplement
Fiber orientation maps of sagittal sections through the left hemisphere of brain ID1947 from medial to lateral (A-C).

(A-C) Overview with fiber tract and cortical areas. (A) Section #151, (B) section #143, (C) section #97. This series is lateral to that of Figure 3. (D-G) Magnifications of the respective rectangles in A and B. The sphere indicates the color coding of 3D fiber orientation in each pixel. amts: anterior midtemporal sulcus, DP: dorsal prelunate area, FST: superior temporal area in the floor of the superior temporal sulcus, ILF: inferior longitudinal fascicle, ios: inferior occipital sulcus, IPa: area IPa in the fundus of the superior temporal sulcus, lf: lateral fissure, ls: lunate sulcus, MT: middle temporal area, ots: occipito-temporal sulcus, pmts: posterior middle temporal sulcus, SS: stratum sagittale, sts: superior temporal sulcus, TE: area TE, TEO: area TEO, U: U-fibers, V1: primary visual cortex, V2d: secondary visual cortex dorsal part, V2v: secondary visual cortex ventral part, V3A: visual area V3A, V3d: visual area three dorsal part, V3v: visual area three ventral part, V4d: visual area four dorsal part, V4t: visual area four transitional area, V4v: visual area four ventral part, VOF: vertical occipital fascicle. +: fibers underlying lateral V1 (stratum extra-calcarinum).

Figure 4—figure supplement 1
Magnification of a sagittal section (#151 of brain ID1947) showing the intricate spatial relations of VOF.

The small whole-section image on the top left depicts magnified region as a rectangle. The sphere indicates the color coding of 3D fiber orientation in each pixel. ILF: inferior longitudinal fascicle, SS: stratum sagittale, VOF: vertical occipital fascicle.

Rostral beginning of the SS.

(A) Coronal section at the level of the lateral geniculate body (section #582, both left and right hemispheres, brain ID1818). (B-C) Magnifications of rectangles B (right hemisphere) and C (left hemisphere) in A. Geniculo-cortical fibers (gcf; course highlighted by arrow) leave the lateral geniculate body, cross over the ventral subcortical bundle (vSB), and merge with the SS. (D-E) Magnifications of rectangles D (right hemisphere) and E (left hemisphere) in A. Lower part of the SS, bordered medially by the vSB, and laterally by the fibers along superior temporal sulcus (marked as hashtag). Fibers between the vSB and the fibers along superior temporal sulcus cross the SS (arrow). The sphere indicates the color coding of 3D fiber orientation in each pixel. a: alveus, AF: arcuate fascicle, CC: corpus callosum, Cd: caudate nucleus, cs: central sulcus, gcf: geniculo-cortical fibers, GP: globus pallidus, H: hippocampus, ic: internal capsule, ILF: inferior longitudinal fascicle, lf: lateral fissure, LGN: lateral geniculate nucleus, MdLF: middle longitudinal fascicle, ots: occipito-temporal sulcus, pscs: posterior subcentral sulcus, Put: putamen, SLFI-III: superior longitudinal fascicle (parts I to III), SS: stratum sagittale, sts: superior temporal sulcus, vSB: ventral subcortical bundle. Hashtag indicates fibers along superior temporal sulcus.

Middle portion of the SS as seen in a coronal section (brain ID1818; section #675, both left and right hemispheres, caudal to that shown in Figure 5).

The sphere indicates the color coding of 3D fiber orientation in each pixel. AF: arcuate fascicle, c: cingulate bundle, CC: corpus callosum, Cd: caudate nucleus, cs: central sulcus, E: epiphysis, f: fornix, fi: fimbria hippocampi, FOF: fronto-occipital fascicle, H: hippocampus, ips: intraparietal sulcus, ILF: inferior longitudinal fascicle, lf: lateral fissure, LV: lateral ventricle, MdLF: middle longitudinal fascicle, MG: medial geniculate body, ots: occipito-temporal sulcus, PL: lateral pulvinar, PM: medial pulvinar, SLFI-III: superior longitudinal fascicle (parts I to III), SS: stratum sagittale, StB: striatal bundle, sts: superior temporal sulcus. Asterisk indicates the Muratoff bundle. Hashtag indicates fibers along superior temporal sulcus.

Figure 7 with 2 supplements
Fiber orientation map of a coronal section (brain ID1818; section #860, right hemisphere, caudal to that shown in Figure 6).

(A) Overview with fiber tract and cortical areas. (B, C and D) Magnifications of the respective rectangles in A. The sphere indicates the color coding of 3D fiber orientation in each pixel. 23: posterior cingulate area 23, 31: posterior cingulate area 31, calc: calcarine sulcus, cos: collateral sulcus, FST: superior temporal area in the floor of the superior temporal sulcus, ILF: inferior longitudinal fascicle, ios: inferior occipital sulcus, ips: intraparietal sulcus, LIPd: lateral intraparietal area, dorsal, LIPv: lateral intraparietal area, ventral, ls: lunate sulcus, LV: lateral ventricle, MIPd: medial intraparietal area, dorsal, MIPv: medial intraparietal area, ventral, MST: medial superior temporal area, MT: middle temporal area, OPt: caudal inferior parietal lobule area, , ots: occipito-temporal sulcus, PEa: superior parietal lobule, anterior PE, PEc: superior parietal lobule, caudal PE, PGm: medial parietal area, pmts: posterior middle temporal sulcus, pos: parieto-occipital sulcus, SLFI-II: superior longitudinal fascicle (parts I, II), SS: stratum sagittale, sts: superior temporal sulcus, T: Tapetum, U: U-fibers, V1: primary visual cortex, V2: secondary visual cortex, V2d: secondary visual cortex, dorsal part, V2v: secondary visual cortex, ventral part, V3d: visual area 3, dorsal part, V3v: visual area 3, ventral part, V4d: visual area 4, dorsal part, V4t: visual area 4, transitional area, V4v: visual area 4, ventral part, VIP: ventral intraparietal area, VOF: vertical occipital fascicle. Asterisk indicates stratum calcarinum. Hashtag indicates a short-range fiber along superior temporal sulcus.

Figure 7—figure supplement 1
A fiber orientation map of a coronal section (brain ID1818; section #830, rostral to that shown in Figure 7).

This section is clearly posterior to the splenium corpus calloci. The sphere indicates the color coding of 3D fiber orientation in each pixel. 23: posterior cingulate area 23, 31: posterior cingulate area 31, calc: calcarine sulcus, cos: collateral sulcus, FST: superior temporal area in the floor of the superior temporal sulcus, ILF: inferior longitudinal fascicle, ips: intraparietal sulcus, LIP: lateral intraparietal area LIP, LV: lateral ventricle, MIP: medial intraparietal area, MST: medial superior temporal area, MT: middle temporal area, OPt: caudal inferior parietal lobule area, ots: occipito-temporal sulcus, PEa: superior parietal lobule anterior PE, PEc: superior parietal lobule caudal PE, PGm: medial parietal area, pos: parieto-occipital sulcus, pmts: posterior middle temporal sulcus, SLFI-II: superior longitudinal fascicle (parts I, II), SS: stratum sagittale, sts: superior temporal sulcus, T: Tapetum, TEO: area TEO, TPt: temporo-parietal area, U: U-fibers, V1: primary visual cortex, V2: secondary visual cortex, V2d: secondary visual cortex dorsal part, V2v: secondary visual cortex ventral part, V3v: visual area three ventral part, V4d: visual area four dorsal part, V4t: visual area 4, transitional area, V4v: visual area four ventral part, VIP: ventral intraparietal area, VOF: vertical occipital fascicle. Asterisk indicates stratum calcarinum. Hashtag indicates a short-range fiber located between the VOF and the fundus of the superior temporal sulcus.

Figure 7—figure supplement 2
A fiber bundle along the fundus of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) reported in a previous macaque tracer study.

The panel depicts a coronal slice in the macaque brain. Cortical area marked in black is the injection site of anterograde tracer. Area highlighted with dotted red lines indicates the axonal connections from the injection site, which defines a fiber bundle along the fundus of the STS and comparable in location with the short-range fibers labelled with a hashtag in Figure 7 and Figure 7—figure supplement 1.

© 2006 Oxford University Press. Figure 7—figure supplement 2 is reproduced from page 258 of Schmahmann and Pandya, 2006 "Fiber pathways of the brain" (Figure 9-7, case 20, slice 121), with permission from Oxford University Press. It is not covered by the CC-BY 4.0 licence and further reproduction of this panel would need permission from the copyright holder.

Fiber orientation map of a coronal section (brain ID1818; section #898, right hemisphere, caudal to that shown in Figure 7).

(A) Overview with fiber tract and cortical areas. (B) Medial and lateral components of the VOF (magnification of the rectangle in A). The sphere indicates the color coding of 3D fiber orientation in each pixel. apos: accessory parieto-occipital sulcus, calc: calcarine sulcus, cos: collateral sulcus, dOB: dorsal occipital bundle, DP: dorsal prelunate area, ILF: inferior longitudinal fascicle, ios: inferior occipital sulcus, ips: intraparietal sulcus, LIPd: lateral intraparietal area dorsal part, LIPv: lateral intraparietal area ventral part, ls: lunate sulcus, LV: lateral ventricle, MIPd: medial intraparietal area dorsal part, MIPv: medial intraparietal area ventral part, OPt: caudal inferior parietal lobule area, ots: occipito-temporal sulcus, PEc: superior parietal lobule caudal PE, PGm: medial parietal area, SS: stratum sagittale, sts: superior temporal sulcus, T: Tapetum, U: U-fibers, V1: primary visual cortex, V2d: secondary visual cortex dorsal part, V2v: secondary visual cortex ventral part, V3A: visual area V3A, V3d: visual area 3 dorsal part, V3v: visual area 3 ventral part, V4d: visual area 4 dorsal part, V4t: visual area 4 transitional area, V4v: visual area 4 ventral part, V6: visual area 6, V6A: visual area V6A, V6Ad: visual area V6A dorsal part, V6Av: visual area V6A ventral part, VOF: vertical occipital fascicle. Asterisk indicates stratum calcarinum.

Figure 9 with 1 supplement
Fiber orientation map of a coronal section (brain ID1818; section #961, right hemisphere, caudal to that shown in Figure 8).

(A) Overview with fiber tracts and cortical areas. (B-C) Magnifications of the respective rectangles in A. The sphere indicates the color coding of 3D fiber orientation in each pixel. 23: posterior cingulate area 23, apos: accessory parieto-occipital sulcus, calc: calcarine sulcus, cos: collateral sulcus, dOB: dorsal occipital bundle, DP: dorsal prelunate area, ios: inferior occipital sulcus, ls: lunate sulcus, LV: lateral ventricle, OPt: caudal inferior parietal lobule area, ots: occipito-temporal sulcus, PEc: superior parietal lobule caudal PE, pos: parieto-occipital sulcus, SS: stratum sagittale, T: Tapetum, tr: transverse fibers, U: U-fibers, V1: primary visual cortex, V2d: secondary visual cortex dorsal part, V2v: secondary visual cortex ventral part, V3A: visual area V3A, V3d: visual area 3 dorsal part, V3v: visual area 3 ventral part, V4d: visual area 4 dorsal part, V4v: visual area 4 ventral part, V6: visual area 6, V6A: visual area V6A. Asterisk indicates stratum calcarinum. Yellow lines with double arrow in (A and B) indicate a fiber tract between V1 and V3v.

Figure 9—figure supplement 1
Part of the coronal section #961 (brain ID1818) from Figure 9 showing the intricate spatial relations of the stratum calcarinum (*), tapetum (T), lateral ventricle (LV), ependyma (ep), and stratum sagittale (SS).

(A) Overview with fiber tracts. (B–C) Magnifications of the respective rectangles in A. The sphere indicates the color coding of 3D fiber orientation in each pixel. V1: primary visual cortex.

Fiber orientation map of a coronal section (brain ID1818; section #1061, right hemisphere, caudal to that shown in Figure 9).

(A) Overview with fiber tracts and cortical areas. (B-C) Magnifications of the respective rectangles in A. The sphere indicates the color coding of 3D fiber orientation in each pixel. bv: blood vessel, calc: calcarine sulcus, G: Gennari stripe, ios: inferior occipital sulcus, scalc: superior calcarine sulcus, SS: stratum sagittale, T: tapetum, U: U-fibers, V1: primary visual cortex, V2d: secondary visual cortex dorsal part, V2v: secondary visual cortex ventral part, V3v: visual area three ventral part, +: fibers underlying lateral V1 (stratum extra-calcarinum). Asterisk indicates stratum calcarinum.

Course of the tapetum.

(A) A reconstructed axial section of the right hemisphere from the coronal blockface images obtained during sectioning of vervet monkey brain ID1818. Red dashed lines and letters show the positions of the coronal sections in panels (B) (section #880), (C) (section #850), (D) (section #820), (E) (section #790), and (F) (section #759). (B-F) A series of FOM images of coronal sections from posterior (B) to anterior (F) indicate the tapetum (B-F), stratum calcarinum (B-F), SS (B-F), cingulum (E), and splenium fibers of the corpus callosum (F). In posterior slices, tapetum fibers are found between the SS and the primary visual cortex. In more anterior slices, the tapetum fibers merge with the splenium corporis callosi (F), demonstrating that the tapetum fibers are a continuation of corpus callosum fibers. c: cingulum, calc: calcarine sulcus, CC: corpus callosum, fi: fimbria hippocampi, H: hippocampal formation, LV: lateral ventricle, ProSt: area prostriata, SS: stratum sagittale, T: tapetum, U: U-fibers, V1: primary visual cortex, V2: secondary visual cortex. Asterisks indicate stratum calcarinum.

Figure 12 with 1 supplement
Coronal sections through the occipital lobe of vervet monkey brain ID1818 (A section #940) and vervet monkey brain ID1695 (B-D) depicting fiber orientation map (FOM; A) and the distributions of the glutamate kainate receptor (B section #761), the cholinergic muscarinic M2 receptor (C section #768) and the noradrenergic α1 receptor (D section #772).

Cortical areas in (A) were identified by comparison with (B-D). The sphere indicates the color coding of 3D fiber orientation in each pixel in panel A. Receptor densities in B-D are color coded according to the scale at the bottom. 23: posterior cingulate area 23, apos: accessory parieto-occipital sulcus, calc: calcarine sulcus, cos: collateral sulcus, DP: dorsal prelunate area, ios: inferior occipital sulcus, ips: intraparietal sulcus, LIPd: dorsal part of the lateral intraparietal area LIP, LIPv: ventral part of the lateral intraparietal area LIP, ls: lunate sulcus, OPt: caudal inferior parietal lobule area, ots: occipito-temporal sulcus, PEc: superior parietal lobule caudal PE, pos: parieto-occipital sulcus, V1: primary visual cortex, V2d: secondary visual cortex dorsal part, V2v: secondary visual cortex ventral part, V3A: visual area V3A, V3d: visual area three dorsal part, V3v: visual area three ventral part, V4d: visual area four dorsal part, V4v: visual area four ventral part, V6: visual area 6, V6A: visual area V6A, V6Ad: visual area V6A dorsal part, V6Av: visual area V6A ventral part.

Figure 12—figure supplement 1
Coronal sections through the occipital lobe of macaque monkey ID11539 depicting a myelin stain (A) and the distributions of the glutamate kainate receptor (B), the cholinergic muscarinic M2 receptor (C) and the noradrenergic α1 receptor (D).

Cortical areas in (A) were identified by comparison with (B–D). Receptor densities in (B–D) are color coded according to the scale at the bottom. apos: accessory parieto-occipital sulcus, calc: calcarine sulcus, cos: colateral sulcus, DP: dorsal prelunate area, ios: inferior occipital sulcus, ips: intraparietal sulcus, ls: lunate sulcus, ots: occipito-temporal sulcus, PEc: superior parietal lobule caudal PE, PIP: posterior intraparietal area, pos: parieto-occipital sulcus, V1: primary visual cortex, V2d: secondary visual cortex dorsal part, V2v: secondary visual cortex ventral part, V3A: visual area V3A, V3d: visual area three dorsal part, V3v: visual area three ventral part, V4d: visual area four dorsal part, V6: visual area 6, V6Ad: visual area V6A dorsal part, V6Av: visual area V6A ventral part.

Author response image 1
PubMed publications on scientific papers studying vervet monkeys.

Vertical axis depicts a number of publications in each year (from 1940 to 2019). The survey was performed on PubMed (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) by one of the author (N.P.G.).

Author response image 2
Comparison of occipital white matter tracts visible in color-encoded diffusion MRI data between macaque and vervet monkeys.

(A) Coronal view of color-encoded ex vivo diffusion MRI data collected from macaque monkey (left panel; voxel size, 0.25 mm isotropic; 121 directions; b = 4800 s/mm2 ; data is measured at National Institutes of Health and provided by D.A. Leopold and F.Q. Ye) and vervet monkey (right panel; 0.5 mm isotropic; 128 directions; b = 7700 s/mm2 ; data is measured at Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance and provided by T.B. Dyrby following protocols described in Dyrby et al., 2011). The color scheme depicts the principal diffusion direction in each voxel (blue, superior–inferior; green, anterior–posterior; red, left–right). The details on these datasets have been described in previous publications (macaque data, Thomas et al., 2014; Reveley et al., 2015; Takemura et al., 2017; vervet data, Donahue et al., 2016). (B) Axial view of color-encoded ex vivo diffusion MRI data from macaque (left panel) and vervet monkey (right panel). Despite of inter-species difference in the position of gyri and sulci and differences in acquisition parameters across datasets, the position of stratum sagittale (SS), vertical occipital fascicle (VOF) and tapetum (T) were consistent between two species.

Author response image 3
Comparison across color encoding schemes for 3D-PLI data.

(A) HSV color representation of 3D-PLI data obtained from a medial sagittal section through the left hemisphere of the vervet monkey brain (ID1947; section #249). The image is identical to that presented in Figure 2A. (B) RGB color representation of the 3D-PLI data. The section is identical to that presented in panel A. The sphere indicates the RGB color coding of 3D fiber orientation in each pixel in panel B.

Tables

Table 1
Summary of observations of major visual white matter tracts in 3D-PLI data of the vervet monkey brain.
TractDefinition and trajectoryOrigins/terminations visible in 3D-PLI data (figure number)
SSParasagittally oriented white matter tract in posterior part of brain (Sachs, 1892). Thought to include thalamo-cortical fibers (Schmahmann and Pandya, 2006).Includes fibers between LGN and V1 (Figures 2, 3 and 10). Also includes other fibers with termination/origin in lateral pulvinar (Figure 2) and V2v (Figure 10). Other fibers turning into the SS also described previously (Schmahmann and Pandya, 2006).
ILFWhite matter tract travelling along lateral gyri in the temporal lobe (Burdach, 1822). Composes major associative connection between occipital and temporal lobe (Catani et al., 2003).Can be divided into fibers dorsal to the SS and those ventral to the SS (Figures 34). At anterior end, both dorsal and ventral fibers terminate at TE (Figures 34). Posterior termination of the ventral ILF appears at V3v, V4v and TEO (Figure 4). At posterior end, ventral fibers merged with VOF fibers (Figure 4).
VOFAssociation white matter tract located laterally adjacent to the SS and connecting dorsal and ventral occipital cortex (Yeatman et al., 2014).Dorsal terminations found at V3d, V3A, V4d, V4d and DP (Figures 34 and 78). Ventral terminations found at V3v, V4v and TEO (Figure 7 and Figure 7—figure supplement 1). Some fibers merged with ventral ILF fibers near ventral extrastriate cortex (Figure 4).
dOBAssociation white matter tract located between the SS and annectant gyrus (Schmahmann and Pandya, 2006).Posterior termination in V3A (Figure 9). Connects medial and lateral parts of cortex in the intraparietal sulcus. Difficult to precisely identify all dOB terminations since its merges with VOF and U-fibers (Figure 8).
tapetumSlender caudal and lateral component of the corpus callosum (Burdach, 1822; Clarke and Miklossy, 1990; Schmahmann and Pandya, 2007).Anterior origin is splenium corporis callosi (Figure 11). Posterior terminations were not always identifiable, but may terminate in the border tuft region or area prostriata (Figures 89 and 11).
stratum calcarinumU-fiber layer of the calcarine sulcus (Déjerine, 1895).Connects dorsal and ventral lips of calcarine sulcus, which correspond to border tuft region and area prostriata (Figures 711).

Data availability

Original data is publicly available via the EBRAINS platform of the Human Brain Project (Axer et al., 2020; https://doi.org/10.25493/AFR3-KDK).

The following data sets were generated
  1. 1
    EBRAINS
    1. M Axer
    2. D Gräßel
    3. N Palomero-Gallagher
    4. H Takemura
    5. MJ Jorgensen
    6. R Woods
    7. K Amunts
    (2020)
    Images of the nerve fiber architecture at micrometer-resolution in the vervet monkey visual system.
    https://doi.org/10.25493/AFR3-KDK

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