The percentage increase from sham levels are presented, positive values (red) are increases and negative values (green) are reductions in protein levels, compared to sham control levels. Left – At 8 hr, more proteins displayed significant increases than significant reductions in protein levels. VEGF-B; MIP-3b; SLAM and CRP were the most up-regulated proteins. FASL and MIP-1a were significantly lower than sham. Right – At 24 hr following a single mTBI event, many more proteins presented with lower rather than increased levels when compared to sham. The largest reductions were evident in IL-1 ra and IL-12p40, the largest increases in protein levels were seen for CD6 and E-Cadherin. Percentage ‘increase’ values are presented as the mean ± S.E.M. of n cortical samples (see Supplementary file 1 for mean ± S.E.M. and n data). Definitions of pathways are provided in the Figure Legends, where the pathways are first mentioned in the results sections. When new pathways are described in subsequent text, the new definitions will be provided in the appropriate Figure Legend. Pathway definitions for 8 and 24 hr are: Apoptosis signaling pathway (P00006) - signal transduction pathways linked with cellular death. FAS signaling pathway (P00020) - the FAS receptor mediates apoptotic signaling initiated by interaction with surface expressed FASL on other cells, FAS-FASL apoptosis is mediated via a death domain. Alzheimer disease-presenilin pathway (P00004) - the presenilin gamma-secretase complex linked to Alzheimer's disease. Angiogenesis (P00005) - signaling pathways that have been identified as key mediators of angiogenesis. PDGF signaling pathway (P00047) - platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) plays a critical role in cellular proliferation and development. EGF receptor signaling pathway (P00018) - signaling that mediates growth and proliferation in response to the binding of a variety of growth factor ligands. CCKR signaling map (P06959) - the classical gastrin cholecystokinin B receptor CCK-BR, its isoforms and alternative receptors, these peptides trigger signaling pathways which influence the expression of downstream genes that affect cell survival, angiogenesis and invasion. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor pathway (P06664) - the GnRH receptor (GnRHR), expressed at the cell surface of the anterior pituitary gonadotrope is critical for normal secretion of gonadotropins LH and FSH, pubertal development, and reproduction. Wnt signaling pathway (P00057) - is involved in various transcriptional regulatory molecules affecting various target genes. Inflammation mediated by chemokine and cytokine signaling pathway (P00031) - this pathway illustrates chemokine-induced adhesion and migration of leukocytes resulting in the infiltration to the tissue and transcriptional activation enabling recruitment of more leukocytes. Interferon-gamma signaling pathway (P00035) - the interferon-gamma signaling pathway modulates the antiproliferative and antiviral properties of interferon-gamma. Interleukin signaling pathway (P00036) - they can mediate different biological response via activation of a combination of different signal transduction pathways. FGF signaling pathway (P00021) - the result is the activation of many downstream pathways and many cellular outcomes, including mitogenesis, differentiation, survival, apoptosis, and cell migration. Cadherin signaling pathway (P00012) - the pathway is involved in many biological processes, such as development, neurogenesis, cell adhesion, and inflammation. Figure 1—source data 1.