(A) Left: A frequency response area plot (attenuation versus frequency) from one example mouse. Middle: Frequency tuning curve for the same example mouse with peak tuning frequency away from the go sound. Right: Average responses to the go (red) and no-go (gray) sounds. (B) Left: Behavioral learning curves for all mice (n = 3) tuned away from the go frequency depicting the performance (d’) as a function of trial number. Each learning curve was fitted with a sigmoid function. Dashed red line indicates the performance threshold (d’=1). In gray are the go preferring mice similar to Figure 1D. Right: Learning threshold (the trial number where the learning curve crossed the performance threshold) for all mice. In gray are the go tuned mice similar to Figure 1E. (C) 2-dimensional plots of the calcium responses in MGB during the trial (x-axis) and across learning (y-axis; 50 trial bins) for one example mouse divided into go (left) and no-go (right) sounds. Dashed black line indicates stimulus onset (1 s duration) and dashed red line indicates the learning threshold. (D) Calcium responses when the mouse was novice (left) and expert (right). Traces are shown separately for different trial types (hit, miss, FA and CR trials; same data as in ‘C’). Shaded error bars are s.e.m across trials. (E) Mean calcium response during stimulus presentation per mouse in hit and miss trials. Left- novice mice, Right- expert mice. Error bars are s.e.m across trials. ***p<0.001. n.s. – not significant. Wilcoxon rank sum test. Minimum 24 trials for hit or miss. (F) Choice responses, averaged across all three mice for the expert (solid line) and novice (dashed line) conditions. Gray traces are for go tuned mice, same as in Figure 2D. (G) MGB response curve along learning in one mouse (compare to Figure 4A). (H) Correlation between MGB response curves and learning curves as a function of time for an example mouse that is tuned away from the go frequency. (I) Same as H, but averaged across the three mice. Error bars are s.e.m across mice. Gray traces are for go tuned mice, same as Figure 4C. (J) Normalized fits for the MGB response curves of mice tuned away from the go frequency. Dashed red line indicates threshold. Gray traces are for go tuned mice, same as Figure 4D. (K) Maximal change in MBG response curves (i.e. the trial number in which the MGB fit crossed 0.5, dots) as a function of learning threshold (gray crosses). Gray circles are for go preferring mice, same as Figure 4E.