1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine
Download icon

Stem Cells: Encouraging cartilage production

  1. H Scott Stadler  Is a corresponding author
  1. Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Oregon Health Science University, United States
  2. Skeletal Biology Research Center, Shriners Hospital for Children, United States
Insight
Cite this article as: eLife 2020;9:e57239 doi: 10.7554/eLife.57239
1 figure

Figures

GRASLND helps mesenchymal stem cells to create cartilage by suppressing IFN-signaling.

(A) Exposing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to the growth factor TGFβ3 activates the expression of the Sox9 gene, which triggers the production of a long non-coding RNA called GRASLND. (B) GRASLND binds to the kinase EIF2AK2 (blue), which blocks the inhibitory phosphorylation of the protein EIF2A (green). This, in turn, promotes the expression of 'prochondrogenic factors' that encourage the production of molecules, such as proteoglycans, which form cartilage; the cell is said to have a 'chondrogenic' phenotype. (C) When GRASLND is depleted from mesenchymal stem cells, the kinase EIF2AK2 probably phosphorylates EIF2A (represented here by the ‘-P*’). This activates the Type II IFN-γ response, which ultimately leads to a reduction in proteoglycan expression and a loss of the chondrogenic phenotype. GRASLND: glycosaminoglycan regulatory associated long non-coding RNA; EIF2A: eukaryotic translation initiation factor two alpha; EIF2AK2: EIF2A kinase; TGFβ3: transforming growth factor beta 3. Figure created using BioRender (BioRender.com).

Download links

A two-part list of links to download the article, or parts of the article, in various formats.

Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)

Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)

Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)