Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) establishes a latent infection in neurons and periodically reactivates to cause disease. The stimuli that trigger HSV-1 reactivation have not been fully elucidated. We demonstrate HSV-1 reactivation from latently infected mouse neurons induced by forskolin requires neuronal excitation. Stimuli that directly induce neurons to become hyperexcitable also induced HSV-1 reactivation. Forskolin-induced reactivation was dependent on the neuronal pathway of DLK/JNK activation and included an initial wave of viral gene expression that was independent of histone demethylase activity and linked to histone phosphorylation. IL-1β is released under conditions of stress, fever and UV exposure of the epidermis; all known triggers of clinical HSV reactivation. We found that IL-1β induced histone phosphorylation and increased the excitation in sympathetic neurons. Importantly, IL-1β triggered HSV-1 reactivation, which was dependent on DLK and neuronal excitability. Thus, HSV-1 co-opts an innate immune pathway resulting from IL-1 stimulation of neurons to induce reactivation.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data files have been provided for all figures.
- Anna R Cliffe
- Sean R Cuddy
- Jon Suzich
- Sara Dochnal
- Jon Suzich
- Jon Suzich
- Chris Boutell
- Bimal N Desai
- Philip V Seegren
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. Rodent handling and husbandry were carried out under animal protocols approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the University of Virginia (UVA). All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (#4134) of the University of Virginia.
- Melanie M Brinkmann, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany
© 2020, Cuddy et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Candida albicans, an opportunistic human pathogen, poses a significant threat to human health and is associated with significant socio-economic burden. Current antifungal treatments fail, at least in part, because C. albicans can initiate a strong drug tolerance response that allows some cells to grow at drug concentrations above their minimal inhibitory concentration. To better characterize this cytoprotective tolerance program at the molecular single-cell level, we used a nanoliter droplet-based transcriptomics platform to profile thousands of individual fungal cells and establish their subpopulation characteristics in the absence and presence of antifungal drugs. Profiles of untreated cells exhibit heterogeneous expression that correlates with cell cycle stage with distinct metabolic and stress responses. At 2 days post-fluconazole exposure (a time when tolerance is measurable), surviving cells bifurcate into two major subpopulations: one characterized by the upregulation of genes encoding ribosomal proteins, rRNA processing machinery, and mitochondrial cellular respiration capacity, termed the Ribo-dominant (Rd) state; and the other enriched for genes encoding stress responses and related processes, termed the Stress-dominant (Sd) state. This bifurcation persists at 3 and 6 days post-treatment. We provide evidence that the ribosome assembly stress response (RASTR) is activated in these subpopulations and may facilitate cell survival.
Pyroptosis and apoptosis are two forms of regulated cell death that can defend against intracellular infection. When a cell fails to complete pyroptosis, backup pathways will initiate apoptosis. Here, we investigated the utility of apoptosis compared to pyroptosis in defense against an intracellular bacterial infection. We previously engineered Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to persistently express flagellin, and thereby activate NLRC4 during systemic infection in mice. The resulting pyroptosis clears this flagellin-engineered strain. We now show that infection of caspase-1 or gasdermin D deficient macrophages by this flagellin-engineered S. Typhimurium induces apoptosis in vitro. Additionally, we engineered S. Typhimurium to translocate the pro-apoptotic BH3 domain of BID, which also triggers apoptosis in macrophages in vitro. During mouse infection, the apoptotic pathway successfully cleared these engineered S. Typhimurium from the intestinal niche but failed to clear the bacteria from the myeloid niche in the spleen or lymph nodes. In contrast, the pyroptotic pathway was beneficial in defense of both niches. To clear an infection, cells may have specific tasks that they must complete before they die; different modes of cell death could initiate these ‘bucket lists’ in either convergent or divergent ways.