IER5, a DNA damage response gene, is required for Notch-mediated induction of squamous cell differentiation
Notch signaling regulates squamous cell proliferation and differentiation and is frequently disrupted in squamous cell carcinomas, in which Notch is tumor suppressive. Here, we show that conditional activation of Notch in squamous cells activates a context-specific gene expression program through lineage-specific regulatory elements. Among direct Notch target genes are multiple DNA damage response genes, including IER5, which we show is required for Notch-induced differentiation of squamous carcinoma cells and TERT-immortalized keratinocytes. IER5 is epistatic to PPP2R2A, a gene that encodes the PP2A B55a subunit, which we show interacts with IER5 in cells and in purified systems. Thus, Notch and DNA-damage response pathways converge in squamous cells on common genes that promote differentiation, which may serve to eliminate damaged cells from the proliferative pool. We further propose that crosstalk involving Notch and PP2A enables tuning and integration of Notch signaling with other pathways that regulate squamous differentiation.
Sequencing data have been deposited in GEO under accession codes GSE156488 and GSE156624
Notch target genes in keratinocytesNCBI GEne Expression Omnibus, GSE156488.
Notch target genes in keratinocytesNCBI GEne Expression Omnibus, GSE156624.
Article and author information
Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research (None)
- Jon C Aster
National Institutes of Health (R35 CA220340)
- Stephen C Blacklow
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Apurva Sarin, Institute for Stem Cell Science and Regenerative Medicine, India
- Received: April 20, 2020
- Accepted: September 15, 2020
- Accepted Manuscript published: September 16, 2020 (version 1)
- Version of Record published: October 1, 2020 (version 2)
© 2020, Pan et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
- Page views
Article citation count generated by polling the highest count across the following sources: Crossref, PubMed Central, Scopus.
Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)
Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)
Cite this article (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)
- Cancer Biology
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the common primary bone cancer that affects mostly children and young adults. To augment the standard-of-care chemotherapy, we examined the possibility of protein-based therapy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-derived proteomes and OS-elevated proteins. While a conditioned medium (CM), collected from MSCs, did not present tumor-suppressing ability, the activation of PKA converted MSCs into induced tumor-suppressing cells (iTSCs). In a mouse model, the direct and hydrogel-assisted administration of CM inhibited tumor-induced bone destruction, and its effect was additive with cisplatin. CM was enriched with proteins such as calreticulin, which acted as an extracellular tumor suppressor by interacting with CD47. Notably, the level of CALR transcripts was elevated in OS tissues, together with other tumor-suppressing proteins, including histone H4, and PCOLCE. PCOLCE acted as an extracellular tumor-suppressing protein by interacting with amyloid precursor protein, a prognostic OS marker with poor survival. The results supported the possibility of employing a paradoxical strategy of utilizing OS transcriptomes for the treatment of OS.
- Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
- Cancer Biology
The oxidative tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central mitochondrial pathway integrating catabolic conversions of NAD +to NADH and anabolic production of aspartate, a key amino acid for cell proliferation. Several TCA cycle components are implicated in tumorigenesis, including loss-of-function mutations in subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), also known as complex II of the electron transport chain (ETC), but mechanistic understanding of how proliferating cells tolerate the metabolic defects of SDH loss is still lacking. Here, we identify that SDH supports human cell proliferation through aspartate synthesis but, unlike other ETC impairments, the effects of SDH inhibition are not ameliorated by electron acceptor supplementation. Interestingly, we find aspartate production and cell proliferation are restored to SDH-impaired cells by concomitant inhibition of ETC complex I (CI). We determine that the benefits of CI inhibition in this context depend on decreasing mitochondrial NAD+/NADH, which drives SDH-independent aspartate production through pyruvate carboxylation and reductive carboxylation of glutamine. We also find that genetic loss or restoration of SDH selects for cells with concordant CI activity, establishing distinct modalities of mitochondrial metabolism for maintaining aspartate synthesis. These data therefore identify a metabolically beneficial mechanism for CI loss in proliferating cells and reveal how compartmentalized redox changes can impact cellular fitness.