Microdeletions and microduplications of the 16p11.2 chromosomal locus are associated with syndromic neurodevelopmental disorders and reciprocal physiological conditions such as macro/microcephaly and high/low body mass index. To facilitate cellular and molecular investigations into these phenotypes, 65 clones of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) were generated from 13 individuals with 16p11.2 copy number variations (CNVs). To ensure these cell lines were suitable for downstream mechanistic investigations, a customizable bioinformatic strategy for the detection of random integration and expression of reprogramming vectors was developed and leveraged towards identifying a subset of 'footprint'-free hiPSC clones. Transcriptomic profiling of cortical neural progenitor cells derived from these hiPSCs identified alterations in gene expression patterns which precede morphological abnormalities reported at later neurodevelopmental stages. Interpreting clinical information—available with the cell lines by request from the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative—with this transcriptional data revealed disruptions in gene programs related to both nervous system function and cellular metabolism. As demonstrated by these analyses, this publicly available resource has the potential to serve as a powerful medium for probing the etiology of developmental disorders associated with 16p11.2 CNVs.
RNAseq data GEO Submission GSE144736All additional data is included in the manuscript and supporting files.
Copy Number Variation at 16p11.2 Imparts Transcriptional Alterations in Neural Development in an hiPSC-derived Model of CorticogenesisNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE144736.
- Theo D Palmer
- Ricardo E Dolmetsch
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Lee L Rubin, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Harvard University, United States
© 2020, Roth et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
In the striatum, acetylcholine (ACh) neuron activity is modulated co-incident with dopamine (DA) release in response to unpredicted rewards and reward-predicting cues and both neuromodulators are thought to regulate each other. While this co-regulation has been studied using stimulation studies, the existence of this mutual regulation in vivo during natural behavior is still largely unexplored. One long-standing controversy has been whether striatal DA is responsible for the induction of the cholinergic pause or whether DA D2 receptors (D2Rs) modulate a pause that is induced by other mechanisms. Here, we used genetically encoded sensors in combination with pharmacological and genetic inactivation of D2Rs from cholinergic interneurons (CINs) to simultaneously measure ACh and DA levels after CIN D2R inactivation in mice. We found that CIN D2Rs are not necessary for the initiation of cue-induced decrease in ACh levels. Rather, they prolong the duration of the decrease and inhibit ACh rebound levels. Notably, the change in cue-evoked ACh levels is not associated with altered cue-evoked DA release. Moreover, D2R inactivation strongly decreased the temporal correlation between DA and ACh signals not only at cue presentation but also during the intertrial interval pointing to a general mechanism by which D2Rs coordinate both signals. At the behavioral level D2R antagonism increased the latency to lever press, which was not observed in CIN-selective D2R knock out mice. Press latency correlated with the cue-evoked decrease in ACh levels and artificial inhibition of CINs revealed that longer inhibition shortens the latency to press compared to shorter inhibition. This supports a role of the ACh signal and it’s regulation by D2Rs in the motivation to initiate actions.
Neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is the leading cause of death and disability in newborns with the only current treatment being hypothermia. An increased understanding of the pathways that facilitate tissue repair after HI may aid the development of better treatments. Here, we study the role of lactate receptor HCAR1 in tissue repair after neonatal HI in mice. We show that HCAR1 knockout mice have reduced tissue regeneration compared with wildtype mice. Furthermore, proliferation of neural progenitor cells and glial cells, as well as microglial activation was impaired. Transcriptome analysis showed a strong transcriptional response to HI in the subventricular zone of wildtype mice involving about 7300 genes. In contrast, the HCAR1 knockout mice showed a modest response, involving about 750 genes. Notably, fundamental processes in tissue repair such as cell cycle and innate immunity were dysregulated in HCAR1 knockout. Our data suggest that HCAR1 is a key transcriptional regulator of pathways that promote tissue regeneration after HI.