Like tissues of many organisms, Drosophila imaginal discs lose the ability to regenerate as they mature. This loss of regenerative capacity coincides with reduced damage-responsive expression of multiple genes needed for regeneration. We previously showed that two such genes, wg and Wnt6, are regulated by a single damage-responsive enhancer that becomes progressively inactivated via Polycomb-mediated silencing as discs mature (Harris et al., 2016). Here we explore the generality of this mechanism and identify additional damage-responsive, maturity-silenced (DRMS) enhancers, some near genes known to be required for regeneration such as Mmp1, and others near genes that we now show function in regeneration. Using a novel GAL4-independent ablation system we characterize two DRMS-associated genes, apontic (apt), which curtails regeneration and CG9752/asperous (aspr), which promotes it. This mechanism of suppressing regeneration by silencing damage-responsive enhancers at multiple loci can be partially overcome by reducing activity of the chromatin regulator extra sex combs (esc).
Sequencing data have been deposited in GEO. Accession code: GSE140755. All other data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
Chromatin landscape changes of regenerating wing imaginal discsNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE140755.
- Iswar K Hariharan
- Iswar K Hariharan
- Daniel J McKay
- Daniel J McKay
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Hugo J Bellen, Baylor College of Medicine, United States
© 2020, Harris et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Coordination of cell proliferation and migration is fundamental for life, and its dysregulation has catastrophic consequences, such as cancer. How cell cycle progression affects migration, and vice versa, remains largely unknown. We address these questions by combining in silico modelling and in vivo experimentation in the zebrafish trunk neural crest (TNC). TNC migrate collectively, forming chains with a leader cell directing the movement of trailing followers. We show that the acquisition of migratory identity is autonomously controlled by Notch signalling in TNC. High Notch activity defines leaders, while low Notch determines followers. Moreover, cell cycle progression is required for TNC migration and is regulated by Notch. Cells with low Notch activity stay longer in G1 and become followers, while leaders with high Notch activity quickly undergo G1/S transition and remain in S-phase longer. In conclusion, TNC migratory identities are defined through the interaction of Notch signalling and cell cycle progression.
Neurogenesis is the generation of neurons from stem cells, a process that is regulated by SoxB transcription factors (TFs) in many animals. Although the roles of these TFs are well understood in bilaterians, how their neural function evolved is unclear. Here, we use Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus, a member of the early-branching phylum Cnidaria, to provide insight into this question. Using a combination of mRNA in situ hybridization, transgenesis, gene knockdown, transcriptomics, and in-vivo imaging, we provide a comprehensive molecular and cellular analysis of neurogenesis during embryogenesis, homeostasis, and regeneration in this animal. We show that SoxB genes act sequentially at least in some cases. Stem cells expressing Piwi1 and Soxb1, which have a broad developmental potential, become neural progenitors that express Soxb2 before differentiating into mature neural cells. Knockdown of SoxB genes resulted in complex defects in embryonic neurogenesis. Hydractinia neural cells differentiate while migrating from the aboral to the oral end of the animal, but it is unclear whether migration per se or exposure to different microenvironments is the main driver of their fate determination. Our data constitute a rich resource for studies aiming at addressing this question, which is at the heart of understanding the origin and development of animal nervous systems.