The PRC2 (Polycomb repressive complex 2) complex is a multi-component histone H3K27 methyltransferase, best known for silencing Hox genes during embryonic development. The Polycomb-like proteins PHF1, MTF2 and PHF19 are critical components of PRC2 by stimulating its catalytic activity in embryonic stem (ES) cells. The Tudor domains of PHF1/19 have been previously shown to be readers of H3K36me3 in vitro. However, some other studies suggest that PHF1 and PHF19 co-localize with the H3K27me3 mark, but not H3K36me3 in cells. Here, we provide further evidence that PHF1 co-localizes with H3t in testis, and its Tudor domain preferentially binds to H3tK27me3 over canonical H3K27me3 in vitro. Our complex structures of the Tudor domains of PHF1 and PHF19 with H3tK27me3 shed light on the molecular basis for preferential recognition of H3tK27me3 by PHF1 and PHF19 over canonical H3K27me3, implicating that H3tK27me3 might be a physiological ligand of PHF1/19.
Diffraction data have been deposited in PDB under the accession codes 6WAT, 6WAU, 6WAV
Complex structure of PHF1Protein Data Bank, 6WAT.
Complex structure of PHF19Protein Data Bank, 6WAU.
Crystal structure of PHF1 in complex with H3K36me3 substitutionProtein Data Bank, 6WAV.
- Cheng Dong
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Xiaobing Shi, Van Andel Institute, United States
© 2020, Dong et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
TMEM87s are eukaryotic transmembrane proteins with two members (TMEM87A and TMEM87B) in humans. TMEM87s have proposed roles in protein transport to and from the Golgi, as mechanosensitive ion channels, and in developmental signaling. TMEM87 disruption has been implicated in cancers and developmental disorders. To better understand TMEM87 structure and function, we determined a cryo-EM structure of human TMEM87A in lipid nanodiscs. TMEM87A consists of a Golgi-dynamics (GOLD) domain atop a membrane-spanning seven-transmembrane helix domain with a large cavity open to solution and the membrane outer leaflet. Structural and functional analyses suggest TMEM87A may not function as an ion channel or G-protein coupled receptor. We find TMEM87A shares its characteristic domain arrangement with seven other proteins in humans; three that had been identified as evolutionary related (TMEM87B, GPR107, and GPR108) and four previously unrecognized homologs (GPR180, TMEM145, TMEM181, and WLS). Among these structurally related GOLD domain seven-transmembrane helix (GOST) proteins, WLS is best characterized as a membrane trafficking and secretion chaperone for lipidated Wnt signaling proteins. We find key structural determinants for WLS function are conserved in TMEM87A. We propose TMEM87A and structurally homologous GOST proteins could serve a common role in trafficking membrane-associated cargo.
Phagocyte oxidase plays an essential role in the first line of host defense against pathogens. It oxidizes intracellular NADPH to reduce extracellular oxygen to produce superoxide anions that participate in pathogen killing. The resting phagocyte oxidase is a heterodimeric complex formed by two transmembrane proteins NOX2 and p22. Despite the physiological importance of this complex, its structure remains elusive. Here, we reported the cryo-EM structure of the functional human NOX2-p22 complex in nanodisc in the resting state. NOX2 shows a canonical 6-TM architecture of NOX and p22 has four transmembrane helices. M3, M4, and M5 of NOX2, and M1 and M4 helices of p22 are involved in the heterodimer formation. Dehydrogenase (DH) domain of NOX2 in the resting state is not optimally docked onto the transmembrane domain, leading to inefficient electron transfer and NADPH binding. Structural analysis suggests that the cytosolic factors might activate the NOX2-p22 complex by stabilizing the DH in a productive docked conformation.