Asymmetric astral microtubule organization drives the polarized orientation of the S. cerevisiae mitotic spindle and primes the invariant inheritance of the old spindle pole body (SPB, the yeast centrosome) by the bud. This model has anticipated analogous centrosome asymmetries featured in self-renewing stem cell divisions. We previously implicated Spc72, the cytoplasmic receptor for the gamma-tubulin nucleation complex, as the most upstream determinant linking SPB age, functional asymmetry and fate. Here we used structured illumination microscopy and biochemical analysis to explore the asymmetric landscape of nucleation sites inherently built into the spindle pathway and under the control of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK). We show that CDK enforces Spc72 asymmetric docking by phosphorylating Nud1/centriolin. Furthermore, CDK-imposed order in the construction of the new SPB promotes the correct balance of nucleation sites between the nuclear and cytoplasmic faces of the SPB. Together these contributions by CDK inherently link correct SPB morphogenesis, age and fate.
Original data has been made available via the Stowers institutional server at ftp://odr.stowers.org/LIBPB-1526For phosphoproteomic datasets cited in this manuscript, complete details are included in the citation and reference list. The datasets are accessible as supplemental material at the journal sites.
- Sue L Jaspersen
- Qiuran Peng
- Marisa Segal
- Zhiang Guo
- Marisa Segal
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Jens Lüders, Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Spain
© 2020, Geymonat et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
A challenge in analyzing dynamic intracellular cell biological processes is the dearth of methodologies that are sufficiently fast and specific to perturb intracellular protein activities. We previously developed a light-sensitive variant of the microtubule plus end tracking protein EB1 by inserting a blue light-controlled protein dimerization module between functional domains. Here, we describe an advanced method to replace endogenous EB1 with this light-sensitive variant in a single genome editing step, thereby enabling this approach in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and hiPSC-derived neurons. We demonstrate that acute and local optogenetic EB1 inactivation in developing cortical neurons induces microtubule depolymerization in the growth cone periphery and subsequent neurite retraction. In addition, advancing growth cones are repelled from areas of blue light exposure. These phenotypes were independent of the neuronal EB1 homolog EB3, revealing a direct dynamic role of EB1-mediated microtubule plus end interactions in neuron morphogenesis and neurite guidance.
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are potential cell sources for regenerative medicine. The iPSCs exhibit a preference for lineage differentiation to the donor cell type indicating the existence of memory of origin. Although the intrinsic effect of the donor cell type on differentiation of iPSCs is well recognized, whether disease-specific factors of donor cells influence the differentiation capacity of iPSC remains unknown. Using viral based reprogramming, we demonstrated the generation of iPSCs from chondrocytes isolated from healthy (AC-iPSCs) and osteoarthritis cartilage (OA-iPSCs). These reprogrammed cells acquired markers of pluripotency and differentiated into uncommitted mesenchymal-like progenitors. Interestingly, AC-iPSCs exhibited enhanced chondrogenic potential as compared OA-iPSCs and showed increased expression of chondrogenic genes. Pan-transcriptome analysis showed that chondrocytes derived from AC-iPSCs were enriched in molecular pathways related to energy metabolism and epigenetic regulation, together with distinct expression signature that distinguishes them from OA-iPSCs. Our molecular tracing data demonstrated that dysregulation of epigenetic and metabolic factors seen in OA chondrocytes relative to healthy chondrocytes persisted following iPSC reprogramming and differentiation toward mesenchymal progenitors. Our results suggest that the epigenetic and metabolic memory of disease may predispose OA-iPSCs for their reduced chondrogenic differentiation and thus regulation at epigenetic and metabolic level may be an effective strategy for controlling the chondrogenic potential of iPSCs.