(A) Fractions of Hits (purple) and False Alarms (FA; blue) as a function of elapsed time from the onset of the response window for training days 1, 4, and 14. Left: On the first day of training, the probability of a lick is similar on stimulus and blank trials throughout the response window. Middle: On day 4, the probability of Hits is higher than that of FAs early in the response window, yet they eventually become similar toward the end of the response window indicating a lack of inhibitory control of licking at this early stage of training. Right: By day 14, mice exhibit increased levels of inhibitory control throughout the response window while maintaining a rapid first licks on stimulus trials. Data plotted as mean ± SEM; N = 8 mice. (B) Comparison of aROC with d-prime. Left: Population average of aROC (purple) and d-prime (gray) as a function of the time elapsed from the onset of the response window for training day 4. Note that d-prime progressively increases to reach a maximal value (max. d-prime) at a specific time point from the onset of the response window (the optimal response window; dashed line) and then decreases again. In contrast, aROC plateaus after reaching its maximal value. Data plotted as mean ± SEM; N = 8 mice. Middle: Distribution of optimal response windows on each training day across 14 days of training and eight mice. Note the broad distribution of the optimal response window across training days and mice. Inset: boxplot of the mean optimal response window and maximal d-prime on day 4 of training (n = 8 mice). The box plot illustrates mean, first, and third quartiles. Right: Population average of aROC for the full response periods of 4 s (blue) versus the population average of d-prime based on the optimal response window (max. d-prime). Data plotted as mean ± SEM. Note that, over the first two weeks of training, the learning curve based on aROC across the full response window overlaps with that of maximal d-prime. After 2 weeks of training, a d-prime averaging more than 3, indicates that, also based on this metric, the animals are proficient at the task.