Each hair cell (HC) precursor of zebrafish neuromasts divides to form two daughter HCs of opposite hair bundle orientations. Previously, we showed that transcription factor Emx2, expressed in only one of the daughter HCs, generates this bidirectional HC pattern (Jiang et al., 2017). Here, we asked whether Emx2 mediates this effect by changing location of hair bundle establishment or positions of HCs since daughter HCs are known to switch positions with each other. We showed this HC rearrangement, redefined as two processes named Rock & Roll, is required for positional acquisition of HCs. Apical protrusion formation of nascent HCs and planar polarity signaling are both important for the Rock & Roll. Emx2 facilitates Rock & Roll by delaying apical protrusion of its nascent HCs but it does not determine HCs' ultimate positions, indicating that Emx2 mediates bidirectional HC pattern by changing the location where hair bundle is established in HCs.
Sequencing data have been deposited in GEO under accession code GSE152859.
Emx2 defines bidirectional polarity of neuromasts by changing hairbundle orientation and not hair-cell positionsNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE152859.
- Doris K Wu
- Daniel Martin
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All zebrafish experiments were conducted according to NIH approved animal protocol (#1362-13) and NIH animal user guidelines.
- Marianne E Bronner, California Institute of Technology, United States
This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
Successful regeneration requires the coordinated execution of multiple cellular responses to injury. In amputated zebrafish fins, mature osteoblasts dedifferentiate, migrate towards the injury and form proliferative osteogenic blastema cells. We show that osteoblast migration is preceded by cell elongation and alignment along the proximodistal axis, which require actomyosin, but not microtubule turnover. Surprisingly, osteoblast dedifferentiation and migration can be uncoupled. Using pharmacological and genetic interventions, we found that NF-ĸB and retinoic acid signalling regulate dedifferentiation without affecting migration, while the complement system and actomyosin dynamics affect migration but not dedifferentiation. Furthermore, by removing bone at two locations within a fin ray, we established an injury model containing two injury sites. We found that osteoblasts dedifferentiate at and migrate towards both sites, while accumulation of osteogenic progenitor cells and regenerative bone formation only occur at the distal-facing injury. Together, these data indicate that osteoblast dedifferentiation and migration represent generic injury responses that are differentially regulated and can occur independently of each other and of regenerative growth. We conclude that successful fin bone regeneration appears to involve the coordinated execution of generic and regeneration-specific responses of osteoblasts to injury.
Efficient neurotransmission is essential for organism survival and is enhanced by myelination. However, the genes that regulate myelin and myelinating glial cell development have not been fully characterized. Data from our lab and others demonstrates that cd59, which encodes for a small GPI-anchored glycoprotein, is highly expressed in developing zebrafish, rodent, and human oligodendrocytes (OLs) and Schwann cells (SCs), and that patients with CD59 dysfunction develop neurological dysfunction during early childhood. Yet, the function of Cd59 in the developing nervous system is currently undefined. In this study, we demonstrate that cd59 is expressed in a subset of developing SCs. Using cd59 mutant zebrafish, we show that developing SCs proliferate excessively and nerves may have reduced myelin volume, altered myelin ultrastructure, and perturbed node of Ranvier assembly. Finally, we demonstrate that complement activity is elevated in cd59 mutants and that inhibiting inflammation restores SC proliferation, myelin volume, and nodes of Ranvier to wildtype levels. Together, this work identifies Cd59 and developmental inflammation as key players in myelinating glial cell development, highlighting the collaboration between glia and the innate immune system to ensure normal neural development.