Collagens are a primary component of the extracellular matrix and are functional ligands for the inhibitory immune receptor leukocyte associated immunoglobulin-like receptor (LAIR)-1. LAIR-2 is a secreted protein that can act as a decoy receptor by binding collagen with higher affinity than LAIR-1. We propose that collagens promote immune evasion by interacting with LAIR-1 expressed on immune cells, and that LAIR-2 releases LAIR-1 mediated immune suppression. Analysis of public human datasets show that collagens, LAIR-1 and LAIR-2 have unique and overlapping associations with survival in certain tumors. We designed a dimeric LAIR-2 with a functional IgG1 Fc tail, NC410, and showed that NC410 increases human T cell expansion and effector function in vivo in a mouse xenogeneic-graft versus-host disease model. In humanized mouse tumor models NC410 reduces tumor growth that is dependent on T cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of human tumors shows that NC410 binds to collagen-rich areas where LAIR-1+ immune cells are localized. Our findings show that NC410 might be a novel strategy for cancer immunotherapy for immune-excluded tumors.
Source codes were provided for Figure 1, Figure 2 and Supplemental Figure 1
- Linde Meyaard
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All mouse studies were performed at NextCure based on Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee standards according to the protocols of NextCure Animal (NCA) Study 164 (NCA#164 for Figure 3), NCA#122 (for Figure 4), NCA#209 (for Figure 5), NCA#217 (for Figure 6) and NCA#270 (for Supplementary Figure 3).
Human subjects: Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) were isolated from blood of healthy donors in agreement with ethical committee of the University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU) and after written informed consent from the subjects in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.Specimens of seven selected tumor types were included for analysis: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC), glioblastoma (GBM), melanoma, non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD). Of each tumor type, in agreement with the ethical committee of the UMCU, formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) material of 9-10 tumor specimens and five healthy specimens was collected from the tissue biobank (research protocol 17-786).
- Yuting Ma, Suzhou Institute of Systems Medicine, China
© 2021, Ramos et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to drive metastatic dissemination in experimental cancer models. However, tumour cells undergoing EMT have not been observed disseminating into the tissue surrounding human tumour specimens, leaving the relevance to human cancer uncertain. We have previously identified both EpCAM and CD24 as CSC markers that, alongside the mesenchymal marker Vimentin, identify EMT CSCs in human oral cancer cell lines. This afforded the opportunity to investigate whether the combination of these three markers can identify disseminating EMT CSCs in actual human tumours. Examining disseminating tumour cells in over 12,000 imaging fields from 74 human oral tumours, we see a significant enrichment of EpCAM, CD24 and Vimentin co-stained cells disseminating beyond the tumour body in metastatic specimens. Through training an artificial neural network, these predict metastasis with high accuracy (cross-validated accuracy of 87-89%). In this study, we have observed single disseminating EMT CSCs in human oral cancer specimens, and these are highly predictive of metastatic disease.
Esophageal cancer (EC) is a fatal digestive disease with a poor prognosis and frequent lymphatic metastases. Nevertheless, reliable biomarkers for EC diagnosis are currently unavailable. Accordingly, we have performed a comparative proteomics analysis on cancer and paracancer tissue-derived exosomes from eight pairs of EC patients using label-free quantification proteomics profiling and have analyzed the differentially expressed proteins through bioinformatics. Furthermore, nano-flow cytometry (NanoFCM) was used to validate the candidate proteins from plasma-derived exosomes in 122 EC patients. Of the 803 differentially expressed proteins discovered in cancer and paracancer tissue-derived exosomes, 686 were up-regulated and 117 were down-regulated. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (CD54) was identified as an up-regulated candidate for further investigation, and its high expression in cancer tissues of EC patients was validated using immunohistochemistry, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), and western blot analyses. In addition, plasma-derived exosome NanoFCM data from 122 EC patients concurred with our proteomic analysis. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated that the AUC, sensitivity, and specificity values for CD54 were 0.702, 66.13%, and 71.31%, respectively, for EC diagnosis. Small interference (si)RNA was employed to silence the CD54 gene in EC cells. A series of assays, including cell counting kit-8, adhesion, wound healing, and Matrigel invasion, were performed to investigate EC viability, adhesive, migratory, and invasive abilities, respectively. The results showed that CD54 promoted EC proliferation, migration, and invasion. Collectively, tissue-derived exosomal proteomics strongly demonstrates that CD54 is a promising biomarker for EC diagnosis and a key molecule for EC development.