Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is endowed with multiple highly sophisticated immune evasion strategies. This includes the evasion from antibody mediated immune control by counteracting host Fc-gamma receptor (FcγR) mediated immune control mechanisms such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). We have previously shown that HCMV avoids FcγR activation by concomitant expression of the viral Fc-gamma binding glycoproteins (vFcγRs) gp34 and gp68. We now show that gp34 and gp68 bind IgG simultaneously at topologically different Fcγ sites and achieve efficient antagonization of host FcγR activation by distinct but synergizing mechanisms. While gp34 enhances immune complex internalization, gp68 acts as inhibitor of host FcγR binding to immune complexes. In doing so, gp68 induces Fcγ accessibility to gp34 and simultaneously limits host FcγR recognition. The synergy of gp34 and gp68 is compelled by the interfering influence of excessive non-immune IgG ligands and highlights conformational changes within the IgG globular chains critical for antibody effector function.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data files have been provided for all pertinent Figures (Figures 1D, 3D, 4C, 5D, 6B, 6C, 6D, Figure 4-figure supplement 1)
- Hartmut Hengel
- Hartmut Hengel
- Philipp Kolb
- Anne Halenius
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Human subjects: Consent of blood donors was approved by the ethical review committee, University of Freiburg, vote 474/18.
- Melanie M Brinkmann, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany
© 2021, Kolb et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
T cells are crucial for efficient antigen-specific immune responses and thus their migration within the body, to inflamed tissues from circulating blood or to secondary lymphoid organs, plays a very critical role. T cell extravasation in inflamed tissues depends on chemotactic cues and interaction between endothelial adhesion molecules and cellular integrins. A migrating T cell is expected to sense diverse external and membrane-intrinsic mechano-physical cues, but molecular mechanisms of such mechanosensing in cell migration are not established. We explored if the professional mechanosensor Piezo1 plays any role during integrin-dependent chemotaxis of human T cells. We found that deficiency of Piezo1 in human T cells interfered with integrin-dependent cellular motility on ICAM-1-coated surface. Piezo1 recruitment at the leading edge of moving T cells is dependent on and follows focal adhesion formation at the leading edge and local increase in membrane tension upon chemokine receptor activation. Piezo1 recruitment and activation, followed by calcium influx and calpain activation, in turn, are crucial for the integrin LFA1 (CD11a/CD18) recruitment at the leading edge of the chemotactic human T cells. Thus, we find that Piezo1 activation in response to local mechanical cues constitutes a membrane-intrinsic component of the ‘outside-in’ signaling in human T cells, migrating in response to chemokines, that mediates integrin recruitment to the leading edge.
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