Long-term flight depends heavily on intensive energy metabolism in animals; however, the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying efficient substrate utilization remain elusive. Here, we report that the adipokinetic hormone/corazonin-related peptide (ACP) can facilitate muscle lipid utilization in a famous long-term migratory flighting species, Locusta migratoria. By peptidomic analysis and RNAi screening, we identified brain-derived ACP as a key flight-related neuropeptide. ACP gene expression increased notably upon sustained flight. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of ACP gene and ACP receptor gene (ACPR) significantly abated prolonged flight of locusts. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses further revealed that genes and metabolites involved in fatty acid transport and oxidation were notably downregulated in the flight muscle of ACP mutants. Finally, we demonstrated that a fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) mediated the effects of ACP in regulating muscle lipid metabolism during long-term flight in locusts. Our results elucidated a previously undescribed neuroendocrine mechanism underlying efficient energy utilization associated with long-term flight.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data files have been provided for Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.
RNA-Seq of fat body and muscle tissues in ACP mutant locustsNational Genomics Data Center, Beijing Institute of Genomics.
- Xianhui Wang
- Li Hou
- Le Kang
- Li Hou
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Raghu Padinjat, National Centre for Biological Sciences, India
© 2021, Hou et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Alternative polyadenylation yields many mRNA isoforms whose 3’ termini occur disproportionately in clusters within 3’ untranslated regions. Previously, we showed that profiles of poly(A) site usage are regulated by the rate of transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase (Pol) II (Geisberg et al., 2020). Pol II derivatives with slow elongation rates confer an upstream-shifted poly(A) profile, whereas fast Pol II strains confer a downstream-shifted poly(A) profile. Within yeast isoform clusters, these shifts occur steadily from one isoform to the next across nucleotide distances. In contrast, the shift between clusters – from the last isoform of one cluster to the first isoform of the next – is much less pronounced, even over large distances. GC content in a region 13–30 nt downstream from isoform clusters correlates with their sensitivity to Pol II elongation rate. In human cells, the upstream shift caused by a slow Pol II mutant also occurs continuously at single nucleotide resolution within clusters but not between them. Pol II occupancy increases just downstream of poly(A) sites, suggesting a linkage between reduced elongation rate and cluster formation. These observations suggest that (1) Pol II elongation speed affects the nucleotide-level dwell time allowing polyadenylation to occur, (2) poly(A) site clusters are linked to the local elongation rate, and hence do not arise simply by intrinsically imprecise cleavage and polyadenylation of the RNA substrate, (3) DNA sequence elements can affect Pol II elongation and poly(A) profiles, and (4) the cleavage/polyadenylation and Pol II elongation complexes are spatially, and perhaps physically, coupled so that polyadenylation occurs rapidly upon emergence of the nascent RNA from the Pol II elongation complex.
Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) are sensory epithelial cells that transmit airway status to the brain via sensory neurons and locally via calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and γ- aminobutyric acid (GABA). Several other neuropeptides and neurotransmitters have been detected in various species, but the number, targets, functions, and conservation of PNEC signals are largely unknown. We used scRNAseq to profile hundreds of the rare mouse and human PNECs. This revealed over 40 PNEC neuropeptide and peptide hormone genes, most cells expressing unique combinations of 5–18 genes. Peptides are packaged in separate vesicles, their release presumably regulated by the distinct, multimodal combinations of sensors we show are expressed by each PNEC. Expression of the peptide receptors predicts an array of local cell targets, and we show the new PNEC signal angiotensin directly activates one subtype of innervating sensory neuron. Many signals lack lung targets so may have endocrine activity like those of PNEC-derived carcinoid tumors. PNECs are an extraordinarily rich and diverse signaling hub rivaling the enteroendocrine system.