As neural circuits form, growing processes select the correct synaptic partners through interactions between cell surface proteins. The presence of such proteins on two neuronal processes may lead to either adhesion or repulsion; however, the consequences of mismatched expression have rarely been explored. Here we show that the Drosophila CUB-LDL protein Lost and found (Loaf) is required in the UV-sensitive R7 photoreceptor for normal axon targeting only when Loaf is also present in its synaptic partners. Although targeting occurs normally in loaf mutant animals, removing loaf from photoreceptors or expressing it in their postsynaptic neurons Tm5a/b or Dm9 in a loaf mutant causes mistargeting of R7 axons. Loaf localizes primarily to intracellular vesicles including endosomes. We propose that Loaf regulates the trafficking or function of one or more cell surface proteins, and an excess of these proteins on the synaptic partners of R7 prevents the formation of stable connections.
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Jessica E Treisman
- Jessica E Treisman
- Jessica Douthit
- Isabel Holguera
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Carol A Mason, Columbia University, United States
© 2021, Douthit et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The larynx enables speech while regulating swallowing and respiration. Larynx function hinges on the laryngeal epithelium which originates as part of the anterior foregut and undergoes extensive remodeling to separate from the esophagus and form vocal folds that interface with the adjacent trachea. Here we find that sonic hedgehog (SHH) is essential for epithelial integrity in the mouse larynx as well as the anterior foregut. During larynx-esophageal separation, low Shh expression marks specific domains of actively remodeling epithelium that undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) characterized by the induction of N-Cadherin and movement of cells out of the epithelial layer. Consistent with a role for SHH signaling in regulating this process, Shh mutants undergo an abnormal EMT throughout the anterior foregut and larynx, marked by a cadherin switch, movement out of the epithelial layer and cell death. Unexpectedly, Shh mutant epithelial cells are replaced by a new population of FOXA2-negative cells that likely derive from adjacent pouch tissues and form a rudimentary epithelium. These findings have important implications for interpreting the etiology of HH-dependent birth defects within the foregut. We propose that SHH signaling has a default role in maintaining epithelial identity throughout the anterior foregut and that regionalized reductions in SHH trigger epithelial remodeling.
N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent mRNA internal modification and has been shown to regulate the development, physiology, and pathology of various tissues. However, the functions of the m6A epitranscriptome in the visual system remain unclear. In this study, using a retina-specific conditional knockout mouse model, we show that retinas deficient in Mettl3, the core component of the m6A methyltransferase complex, exhibit structural and functional abnormalities beginning at the end of retinogenesis. Immunohistological and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) analyses of retinogenesis processes reveal that retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) and Müller glial cells are the two cell types primarily affected by Mettl3 deficiency. Integrative analyses of scRNA-seq and MeRIP-seq data suggest that m6A fine-tunes the transcriptomic transition from RPCs to Müller cells by promoting the degradation of RPC transcripts, the disruption of which leads to abnormalities in late retinogenesis and likely compromises the glial functions of Müller cells. Overexpression of m6A-regulated RPC transcripts in late RPCs partially recapitulates the Mettl3-deficient retinal phenotype. Collectively, our study reveals an epitranscriptomic mechanism governing progenitor-to-glial cell transition during late retinogenesis, which is essential for the homeostasis of the mature retina. The mechanism revealed in this study might also apply to other nervous systems.