Matriptase activation of Gq drives epithelial disruption and inflammation via RSK and DUOX
Epithelial tissues are primed to respond to insults by activating epithelial cell motility and rapid inflammation. Such responses are also elicited upon overexpression of the membrane bound protease, Matriptase, or mutation of its inhibitor, Hai1. Unrestricted Matriptase activity also predisposes to carcinoma. How Matriptase leads to these cellular outcomes is unknown. We demonstrate that zebrafish hai1a mutants show increased H2O2, NfkB signalling, and IP3R -mediated calcium flashes, and that these promote inflammation, but do not generate epithelial cell motility. In contrast, inhibition of the Gq subunit in hai1a mutants rescues both the inflammation and epithelial phenotypes, with the latter recapitulated by the DAG analogue, PMA. We demonstrate that hai1a has elevated MAPK pathway activity, inhibition of which rescues the epidermal defects. Finally, we identify RSK kinases as MAPK targets disrupting adherens junctions in hai1a mutants. Our work maps novel signalling cascades mediating the potent effects of Matriptase on epithelia, with implications for tissue damage response and carcinoma progression.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files
Article and author information
Ministry of Education - Singapore (2015-T1-001-035)
- Jiajia Ma
- Tom J Carney
Ministry of Education - Singapore (MOE2016-T3-1-005)
- Harsha Mahabaleshwar
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: Fish were housed at the IMCB and the NTU zebrafish facilities under IACUC numbers #140924 and #A18002 respectively, and according to the guidelines of the National Advisory Committee for Laboratory Animal Research. Approval was provided by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees of the Biological Resource Centre (IMCB) and NTU according to Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority (AVA) Rules and the National Advisory Committee for Laboratory Animal Research (NACLAR) requirments.
- Jonathan A Cooper, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, United States
- Received: January 15, 2021
- Accepted: June 23, 2021
- Accepted Manuscript published: June 24, 2021 (version 1)
- Version of Record published: July 20, 2021 (version 2)
© 2021, Ma et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
- Page views
Article citation count generated by polling the highest count across the following sources: Crossref, PubMed Central, Scopus.
Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)
Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)
Cite this article (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)
- Cell Biology
Endothelial cells line all blood vessels, where they coordinate blood vessel formation and the blood-tissue barrier via regulation of cell-cell junctions. The nucleus also regulates endothelial cell behaviors, but it is unclear how the nucleus contributes to endothelial cell activities at the cell periphery. Here, we show that the nuclear-localized linker of the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex protein SUN1 regulates vascular sprouting and endothelial cell-cell junction morphology and function. Loss of murine endothelial Sun1 impaired blood vessel formation and destabilized junctions, angiogenic sprouts formed but retracted in SUN1-depleted sprouts, and zebrafish vessels lacking Sun1b had aberrant junctions and defective cell-cell connections. At the cellular level, SUN1 stabilized endothelial cell-cell junctions, promoted junction function, and regulated contractility. Mechanistically, SUN1 depletion altered cell behaviors via the cytoskeleton without changing transcriptional profiles. Reduced peripheral microtubule density, fewer junction contacts, and increased catastrophes accompanied SUN1 loss, and microtubule depolymerization phenocopied effects on junctions. Depletion of GEF-H1, a microtubule-regulated Rho activator, or the LINC complex protein nesprin-1 rescued defective junctions of SUN1-depleted endothelial cells. Thus, endothelial SUN1 regulates peripheral cell-cell junctions from the nucleus via LINC complex-based microtubule interactions that affect peripheral microtubule dynamics and Rho-regulated contractility, and this long-range regulation is important for proper blood vessel sprouting and junction integrity.
- Cell Biology
We show that TANGO2 in mammalian cells localizes predominantly to mitochondria and partially at mitochondria sites juxtaposed to lipid droplets (LDs) and the endoplasmic reticulum. HepG2 cells and fibroblasts of patients lacking TANGO2 exhibit enlarged LDs. Quantitative lipidomics revealed a marked increase in lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and a concomitant decrease in its biosynthetic precursor phosphatidic acid (PA). These changes were exacerbated in nutrient-starved cells. Based on our data, we suggest that TANGO2 function is linked to acyl-CoA metabolism, which is necessary for the acylation of LPA to generate PA. The defect in acyl-CoA availability impacts the metabolism of many other fatty acids, generates high levels of reactive oxygen species, and promotes lipid peroxidation. We suggest that the increased size of LDs is a combination of enrichment in peroxidized lipids and a defect in their catabolism. Our findings help explain the physiological consequence of mutations in TANGO2 that induce acute metabolic crises, including rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, and cardiac arrhythmias, often leading to fatality upon starvation and stress.