Oxygen (O2) and other dissolved gases such as the gasotransmitters H2S, CO and NO affect cell metabolism and function. To evaluate effects of dissolved gases on processes in tissue, we developed a fluidics system that controls dissolved gases while simultaneously measuring parameters of electron transport, metabolism and secretory function. We use pancreatic islets, retina and liver from rodents to highlight its ability to assess effects of O2 and H2S. Protocols aimed at emulating hypoxia-reperfusion conditions resolved a previously unrecognized transient spike in O2 consumption rate (OCR) following replenishment of O2, and tissue-specific recovery of OCR following hypoxia. The system revealed both inhibitory and stimulatory effects of H2S on insulin secretion rate from isolated islets. The unique ability of this new system to quantify metabolic state and cell function in response to precise changes in dissolved gases provides a powerful platform for cell physiologists to study a wide range of disease states.
Data for all graphs are contained in Excel files named as the same name as the Figure followed by Source Data.
- Brian M Robbings
- James B Hurley
- Ian R Sweet
- James B Hurley
- Ian R Sweet
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (#4091-01) of the University of Washington. All surgery was performed under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia, and every effort was made to minimize suffering.
- Michael A Marletta, University of California, Berkeley, United States
© 2021, Kamat et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Cylicins are testis-specific proteins, which are exclusively expressed during spermiogenesis. In mice and humans, two Cylicins, the gonosomal X-linked Cylicin 1 (Cylc1/CYLC1) and the autosomal Cylicin 2 (Cylc2/CYLC2) genes, have been identified. Cylicins are cytoskeletal proteins with an overall positive charge due to lysine-rich repeats. While Cylicins have been localized in the acrosomal region of round spermatids, they resemble a major component of the calyx within the perinuclear theca at the posterior part of mature sperm nuclei. However, the role of Cylicins during spermiogenesis has not yet been investigated. Here, we applied CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in zygotes to establish Cylc1- and Cylc2-deficient mouse lines as a model to study the function of these proteins. Cylc1 deficiency resulted in male subfertility, whereas Cylc2-/-, Cylc1-/yCylc2+/-, and Cylc1-/yCylc2-/- males were infertile. Phenotypical characterization revealed that loss of Cylicins prevents proper calyx assembly during spermiogenesis. This results in decreased epididymal sperm counts, impaired shedding of excess cytoplasm, and severe structural malformations, ultimately resulting in impaired sperm motility. Furthermore, exome sequencing identified an infertile man with a hemizygous variant in CYLC1 and a heterozygous variant in CYLC2, displaying morphological abnormalities of the sperm including the absence of the acrosome. Thus, our study highlights the relevance and importance of Cylicins for spermiogenic remodeling and male fertility in human and mouse, and provides the basis for further studies on unraveling the complex molecular interactions between perinuclear theca proteins required during spermiogenesis.