Oxygen (O2) and other dissolved gases such as the gasotransmitters H2S, CO and NO affect cell metabolism and function. To evaluate effects of dissolved gases on processes in tissue, we developed a fluidics system that controls dissolved gases while simultaneously measuring parameters of electron transport, metabolism and secretory function. We use pancreatic islets, retina and liver from rodents to highlight its ability to assess effects of O2 and H2S. Protocols aimed at emulating hypoxia-reperfusion conditions resolved a previously unrecognized transient spike in O2 consumption rate (OCR) following replenishment of O2, and tissue-specific recovery of OCR following hypoxia. The system revealed both inhibitory and stimulatory effects of H2S on insulin secretion rate from isolated islets. The unique ability of this new system to quantify metabolic state and cell function in response to precise changes in dissolved gases provides a powerful platform for cell physiologists to study a wide range of disease states.
Data for all graphs are contained in Excel files named as the same name as the Figure followed by Source Data.
- Brian M Robbings
- James B Hurley
- Ian R Sweet
- James B Hurley
- Ian R Sweet
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (#4091-01) of the University of Washington. All surgery was performed under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia, and every effort was made to minimize suffering.
- Michael A Marletta, University of California, Berkeley, United States
© 2021, Kamat et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Cells are exposed to a wide variety of internal and external stresses. Although many studies have focused on cellular responses to acute and severe stresses, little is known about how cellular systems adapt to sublethal chronic stresses. Using mammalian cells in culture, we discovered that they adapt to chronic mild stresses of up to two weeks, notably proteotoxic stresses such as heat, by increasing their size and translation, thereby scaling the amount of total protein. These adaptations render them more resilient to persistent and subsequent stresses. We demonstrate that Hsf1, well known for its role in acute stress responses, is required for the cell size increase, and that the molecular chaperone Hsp90 is essential for coupling the cell size increase to augmented translation. We term this translational reprogramming the ‘rewiring stress response’, and propose that this protective process of chronic stress adaptation contributes to the increase in size as cells get older, and that its failure promotes aging.